blob: edef5084ce17104b6c46f900d70d22b480ed8794 [file] [log] [blame]
* linux/arch/i386/kernel/head.S -- the 32-bit startup code.
* Copyright (C) 1991, 1992 Linus Torvalds
* Enhanced CPU detection and feature setting code by Mike Jagdis
* and Martin Mares, November 1997.
#include <linux/threads.h>
#include <linux/linkage.h>
#include <asm/segment.h>
#include <asm/page.h>
#include <asm/pgtable.h>
#include <asm/desc.h>
#include <asm/cache.h>
#include <asm/thread_info.h>
#include <asm/asm-offsets.h>
#include <asm/setup.h>
* References to members of the new_cpu_data structure.
#define X86 new_cpu_data+CPUINFO_x86
#define X86_VENDOR new_cpu_data+CPUINFO_x86_vendor
#define X86_MODEL new_cpu_data+CPUINFO_x86_model
#define X86_MASK new_cpu_data+CPUINFO_x86_mask
#define X86_HARD_MATH new_cpu_data+CPUINFO_hard_math
#define X86_CPUID new_cpu_data+CPUINFO_cpuid_level
#define X86_CAPABILITY new_cpu_data+CPUINFO_x86_capability
#define X86_VENDOR_ID new_cpu_data+CPUINFO_x86_vendor_id
* This is how much memory *in addition to the memory covered up to
* and including _end* we need mapped initially. We need one bit for
* each possible page, but only in low memory, which means
* 2^32/4096/8 = 128K worst case (4G/4G split.)
* Modulo rounding, each megabyte assigned here requires a kilobyte of
* memory, which is currently unreclaimed.
* This should be a multiple of a page.
#define INIT_MAP_BEYOND_END (128*1024)
* 32-bit kernel entrypoint; only used by the boot CPU. On entry,
* %esi points to the real-mode code as a 32-bit pointer.
* CS and DS must be 4 GB flat segments, but we don't depend on
* any particular GDT layout, because we load our own as soon as we
* can.
movl %cs, %eax
testl $0x3, %eax
jnz startup_paravirt
* Set segments to known values.
lgdt boot_gdt_descr - __PAGE_OFFSET
movl $(__BOOT_DS),%eax
movl %eax,%ds
movl %eax,%es
movl %eax,%fs
movl %eax,%gs
* Clear BSS first so that there are no surprises...
* No need to cld as DF is already clear from cld above...
xorl %eax,%eax
movl $__bss_start - __PAGE_OFFSET,%edi
movl $__bss_stop - __PAGE_OFFSET,%ecx
subl %edi,%ecx
shrl $2,%ecx
rep ; stosl
* Copy bootup parameters out of the way.
* Note: %esi still has the pointer to the real-mode data.
* With the kexec as boot loader, parameter segment might be loaded beyond
* kernel image and might not even be addressable by early boot page tables.
* (kexec on panic case). Hence copy out the parameters before initializing
* page tables.
movl $(boot_params - __PAGE_OFFSET),%edi
movl $(PARAM_SIZE/4),%ecx
movl boot_params - __PAGE_OFFSET + NEW_CL_POINTER,%esi
andl %esi,%esi
jnz 2f # New command line protocol
jne 1f
movzwl OLD_CL_OFFSET,%esi
addl $(OLD_CL_BASE_ADDR),%esi
movl $(saved_command_line - __PAGE_OFFSET),%edi
movl $(COMMAND_LINE_SIZE/4),%ecx
* Initialize page tables. This creates a PDE and a set of page
* tables, which are located immediately beyond _end. The variable
* init_pg_tables_end is set up to point to the first "safe" location.
* Mappings are created both at virtual address 0 (identity mapping)
* and PAGE_OFFSET for up to _end+sizeof(page tables)+INIT_MAP_BEYOND_END.
* Warning: don't use %esi or the stack in this code. However, %esp
* can be used as a GPR if you really need it...
page_pde_offset = (__PAGE_OFFSET >> 20);
movl $(pg0 - __PAGE_OFFSET), %edi
movl $(swapper_pg_dir - __PAGE_OFFSET), %edx
movl $0x007, %eax /* 0x007 = PRESENT+RW+USER */
leal 0x007(%edi),%ecx /* Create PDE entry */
movl %ecx,(%edx) /* Store identity PDE entry */
movl %ecx,page_pde_offset(%edx) /* Store kernel PDE entry */
addl $4,%edx
movl $1024, %ecx
addl $0x1000,%eax
loop 11b
/* End condition: we must map up to and including INIT_MAP_BEYOND_END */
/* bytes beyond the end of our own page tables; the +0x007 is the attribute bits */
leal (INIT_MAP_BEYOND_END+0x007)(%edi),%ebp
cmpl %ebp,%eax
jb 10b
movl %edi,(init_pg_tables_end - __PAGE_OFFSET)
xorl %ebx,%ebx /* This is the boot CPU (BSP) */
jmp 3f
* Non-boot CPU entry point; entered from trampoline.S
* We can't lgdt here, because lgdt itself uses a data segment, but
* we know the trampoline has already loaded the boot_gdt_table GDT
* for us.
movl $(__BOOT_DS),%eax
movl %eax,%ds
movl %eax,%es
movl %eax,%fs
movl %eax,%gs
* New page tables may be in 4Mbyte page mode and may
* be using the global pages.
* NOTE! If we are on a 486 we may have no cr4 at all!
* So we do not try to touch it unless we really have
* some bits in it to set. This won't work if the BSP
* implements cr4 but this AP does not -- very unlikely
* but be warned! The same applies to the pse feature
* if not equally supported. --macro
* NOTE! We have to correct for the fact that we're
* not yet offset PAGE_OFFSET..
#define cr4_bits mmu_cr4_features-__PAGE_OFFSET
movl cr4_bits,%edx
andl %edx,%edx
jz 6f
movl %cr4,%eax # Turn on paging options (PSE,PAE,..)
orl %edx,%eax
movl %eax,%cr4
btl $5, %eax # check if PAE is enabled
jnc 6f
/* Check if extended functions are implemented */
movl $0x80000000, %eax
cmpl $0x80000000, %eax
jbe 6f
mov $0x80000001, %eax
/* Execute Disable bit supported? */
btl $20, %edx
jnc 6f
/* Setup EFER (Extended Feature Enable Register) */
movl $0xc0000080, %ecx
btsl $11, %eax
/* Make changes effective */
/* This is a secondary processor (AP) */
xorl %ebx,%ebx
incl %ebx
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */
* Enable paging
movl $swapper_pg_dir-__PAGE_OFFSET,%eax
movl %eax,%cr3 /* set the page table pointer.. */
movl %cr0,%eax
orl $0x80000000,%eax
movl %eax,%cr0 /* ..and set paging (PG) bit */
ljmp $__BOOT_CS,$1f /* Clear prefetch and normalize %eip */
/* Set up the stack pointer */
lss stack_start,%esp
* Initialize eflags. Some BIOS's leave bits like NT set. This would
* confuse the debugger if this code is traced.
* XXX - best to initialize before switching to protected mode.
pushl $0
andl %ebx,%ebx
jz 1f /* Initial CPU cleans BSS */
jmp checkCPUtype
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */
* start system 32-bit setup. We need to re-do some of the things done
* in 16-bit mode for the "real" operations.
call setup_idt
movl $-1,X86_CPUID # -1 for no CPUID initially
/* check if it is 486 or 386. */
* XXX - this does a lot of unnecessary setup. Alignment checks don't
* apply at our cpl of 0 and the stack ought to be aligned already, and
* we don't need to preserve eflags.
movb $3,X86 # at least 386
pushfl # push EFLAGS
popl %eax # get EFLAGS
movl %eax,%ecx # save original EFLAGS
xorl $0x240000,%eax # flip AC and ID bits in EFLAGS
pushl %eax # copy to EFLAGS
popfl # set EFLAGS
pushfl # get new EFLAGS
popl %eax # put it in eax
xorl %ecx,%eax # change in flags
pushl %ecx # restore original EFLAGS
testl $0x40000,%eax # check if AC bit changed
je is386
movb $4,X86 # at least 486
testl $0x200000,%eax # check if ID bit changed
je is486
/* get vendor info */
xorl %eax,%eax # call CPUID with 0 -> return vendor ID
movl %eax,X86_CPUID # save CPUID level
movl %ebx,X86_VENDOR_ID # lo 4 chars
movl %edx,X86_VENDOR_ID+4 # next 4 chars
movl %ecx,X86_VENDOR_ID+8 # last 4 chars
orl %eax,%eax # do we have processor info as well?
je is486
movl $1,%eax # Use the CPUID instruction to get CPU type
movb %al,%cl # save reg for future use
andb $0x0f,%ah # mask processor family
movb %ah,X86
andb $0xf0,%al # mask model
shrb $4,%al
movb %al,X86_MODEL
andb $0x0f,%cl # mask mask revision
movb %cl,X86_MASK
movl %edx,X86_CAPABILITY
is486: movl $0x50022,%ecx # set AM, WP, NE and MP
jmp 2f
is386: movl $2,%ecx # set MP
2: movl %cr0,%eax
andl $0x80000011,%eax # Save PG,PE,ET
orl %ecx,%eax
movl %eax,%cr0
call check_x87
call setup_pda
lgdt cpu_gdt_descr
lidt idt_descr
ljmp $(__KERNEL_CS),$1f
1: movl $(__KERNEL_DS),%eax # reload all the segment registers
movl %eax,%ss # after changing gdt.
movl $(__USER_DS),%eax # DS/ES contains default USER segment
movl %eax,%ds
movl %eax,%es
xorl %eax,%eax # Clear FS and LDT
movl %eax,%fs
lldt %ax
movl $(__KERNEL_PDA),%eax
mov %eax,%gs
cld # gcc2 wants the direction flag cleared at all times
pushl $0 # fake return address for unwinder
movb ready, %cl
movb $1, ready
cmpb $0,%cl # the first CPU calls start_kernel
jne initialize_secondary # all other CPUs call initialize_secondary
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */
jmp start_kernel
* We depend on ET to be correct. This checks for 287/387.
movb $0,X86_HARD_MATH
fstsw %ax
cmpb $0,%al
je 1f
movl %cr0,%eax /* no coprocessor: have to set bits */
xorl $4,%eax /* set EM */
movl %eax,%cr0
1: movb $1,X86_HARD_MATH
.byte 0xDB,0xE4 /* fsetpm for 287, ignored by 387 */
* Point the GDT at this CPU's PDA. On boot this will be
* cpu_gdt_table and boot_pda; for secondary CPUs, these will be
* that CPU's GDT and PDA.
/* get the PDA pointer */
movl start_pda, %eax
/* slot the PDA address into the GDT */
mov cpu_gdt_descr+2, %ecx
mov %ax, (__KERNEL_PDA+0+2)(%ecx) /* base & 0x0000ffff */
shr $16, %eax
mov %al, (__KERNEL_PDA+4+0)(%ecx) /* base & 0x00ff0000 */
mov %ah, (__KERNEL_PDA+4+3)(%ecx) /* base & 0xff000000 */
* setup_idt
* sets up a idt with 256 entries pointing to
* ignore_int, interrupt gates. It doesn't actually load
* idt - that can be done only after paging has been enabled
* and the kernel moved to PAGE_OFFSET. Interrupts
* are enabled elsewhere, when we can be relatively
* sure everything is ok.
* Warning: %esi is live across this function.
lea ignore_int,%edx
movl $(__KERNEL_CS << 16),%eax
movw %dx,%ax /* selector = 0x0010 = cs */
movw $0x8E00,%dx /* interrupt gate - dpl=0, present */
lea idt_table,%edi
mov $256,%ecx
movl %eax,(%edi)
movl %edx,4(%edi)
addl $8,%edi
dec %ecx
jne rp_sidt
.macro set_early_handler handler,trapno
lea \handler,%edx
movl $(__KERNEL_CS << 16),%eax
movw %dx,%ax
movw $0x8E00,%dx /* interrupt gate - dpl=0, present */
lea idt_table,%edi
movl %eax,8*\trapno(%edi)
movl %edx,8*\trapno+4(%edi)
set_early_handler handler=early_divide_err,trapno=0
set_early_handler handler=early_illegal_opcode,trapno=6
set_early_handler handler=early_protection_fault,trapno=13
set_early_handler handler=early_page_fault,trapno=14
xor %edx,%edx
pushl $0 /* fake errcode */
jmp early_fault
movl $6,%edx
pushl $0 /* fake errcode */
jmp early_fault
movl $13,%edx
jmp early_fault
movl $14,%edx
jmp early_fault
movl $(__KERNEL_DS),%eax
movl %eax,%ds
movl %eax,%es
cmpl $2,early_recursion_flag
je hlt_loop
incl early_recursion_flag
movl %cr2,%eax
pushl %eax
pushl %edx /* trapno */
pushl $fault_msg
call early_printk
call printk
jmp hlt_loop
/* This is the default interrupt "handler" :-) */
pushl %eax
pushl %ecx
pushl %edx
pushl %es
pushl %ds
movl $(__KERNEL_DS),%eax
movl %eax,%ds
movl %eax,%es
cmpl $2,early_recursion_flag
je hlt_loop
incl early_recursion_flag
pushl 16(%esp)
pushl 24(%esp)
pushl 32(%esp)
pushl 40(%esp)
pushl $int_msg
call early_printk
call printk
addl $(5*4),%esp
popl %ds
popl %es
popl %edx
popl %ecx
popl %eax
movl $(init_thread_union+THREAD_SIZE),%esp
/* We take pains to preserve all the regs. */
pushl %edx
pushl %ecx
pushl %eax
/* paravirt.o is last in link, and that probe fn never returns */
pushl $__start_paravirtprobe
movl 0(%esp), %eax
pushl (%eax)
movl 8(%esp), %eax
call *(%esp)
popl %eax
movl 4(%esp), %eax
movl 8(%esp), %ecx
movl 12(%esp), %edx
addl $4, (%esp)
jmp 1b
* Real beginning of normal "text" segment
* BSS section
.section ".bss.page_aligned","w"
.fill 1024,4,0
.fill 4096,1,0
* This starts the data section.
.long boot_pda
.long init_thread_union+THREAD_SIZE
.long __BOOT_DS
ready: .byte 0
.long 0
.asciz "Unknown interrupt or fault at EIP %p %p %p\n"
.ascii "Int %d: CR2 %p err %p EIP %p CS %p flags %p\n"
.asciz "Stack: %p %p %p %p %p %p %p %p\n"
* The IDT and GDT 'descriptors' are a strange 48-bit object
* only used by the lidt and lgdt instructions. They are not
* like usual segment descriptors - they consist of a 16-bit
* segment size, and 32-bit linear address value:
.globl boot_gdt_descr
.globl idt_descr
# early boot GDT descriptor (must use 1:1 address mapping)
.word 0 # 32 bit align gdt_desc.address
.word __BOOT_DS+7
.long boot_gdt_table - __PAGE_OFFSET
.word 0 # 32-bit align idt_desc.address
.word IDT_ENTRIES*8-1 # idt contains 256 entries
.long idt_table
# boot GDT descriptor (later on used by CPU#0):
.word 0 # 32 bit align gdt_desc.address
.word GDT_ENTRIES*8-1
.long cpu_gdt_table
* The boot_gdt_table must mirror the equivalent in setup.S and is
* used only for booting.
.quad 0x00cf9a000000ffff /* kernel 4GB code at 0x00000000 */
.quad 0x00cf92000000ffff /* kernel 4GB data at 0x00000000 */
* The Global Descriptor Table contains 28 quadwords, per-CPU.
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* NULL descriptor */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x0b reserved */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x13 reserved */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x1b reserved */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x20 unused */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x28 unused */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x33 TLS entry 1 */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x3b TLS entry 2 */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x43 TLS entry 3 */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x4b reserved */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x53 reserved */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x5b reserved */
.quad 0x00cf9a000000ffff /* 0x60 kernel 4GB code at 0x00000000 */
.quad 0x00cf92000000ffff /* 0x68 kernel 4GB data at 0x00000000 */
.quad 0x00cffa000000ffff /* 0x73 user 4GB code at 0x00000000 */
.quad 0x00cff2000000ffff /* 0x7b user 4GB data at 0x00000000 */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x80 TSS descriptor */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0x88 LDT descriptor */
* Segments used for calling PnP BIOS have byte granularity.
* They code segments and data segments have fixed 64k limits,
* the transfer segment sizes are set at run time.
.quad 0x00409a000000ffff /* 0x90 32-bit code */
.quad 0x00009a000000ffff /* 0x98 16-bit code */
.quad 0x000092000000ffff /* 0xa0 16-bit data */
.quad 0x0000920000000000 /* 0xa8 16-bit data */
.quad 0x0000920000000000 /* 0xb0 16-bit data */
* The APM segments have byte granularity and their bases
* are set at run time. All have 64k limits.
.quad 0x00409a000000ffff /* 0xb8 APM CS code */
.quad 0x00009a000000ffff /* 0xc0 APM CS 16 code (16 bit) */
.quad 0x004092000000ffff /* 0xc8 APM DS data */
.quad 0x00c0920000000000 /* 0xd0 - ESPFIX SS */
.quad 0x00cf92000000ffff /* 0xd8 - PDA */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0xe0 - unused */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0xe8 - unused */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0xf0 - unused */
.quad 0x0000000000000000 /* 0xf8 - GDT entry 31: double-fault TSS */