Merge tag 'printk-for-5.10' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/printk/linux

Pull printk updates from Petr Mladek:
 "The big new thing is the fully lockless ringbuffer implementation,
  including the support for continuous lines. It will allow to store and
  read messages in any situation wihtout the risk of deadlocks and
  without the need of temporary per-CPU buffers.

  The access is still serialized by logbuf_lock. It synchronizes few
  more operations, for example, temporary buffer for formatting the
  message, syslog and kmsg_dump operations. The lock removal is being
  discussed and should be ready for the next release.

  The continuous lines are handled exactly the same way as before to
  avoid regressions in user space. It means that they are appended to
  the last message when the caller is the same. Only the last message
  can be extended.

  The data ring includes plain text of the messages. Except for an
  integer at the beginning of each message that points back to the
  descriptor ring with other metadata.

  The dictionary has to stay. journalctl uses it to filter the log. It
  allows to show messages related to a given device. The dictionary
  values are stored in the descriptor ring with the other metadata.

  This is the first part of the printk rework as discussed at Plumbers
  2019, see https://lore.kernel.org/r/87k1acz5rx.fsf@linutronix.de. The
  next big step will be handling consoles by kthreads during the normal
  system operation. It will require special handling of situations when
  the kthreads could not get scheduled, for example, early boot,
  suspend, panic.

  Other changes:

   - Add John Ogness as a reviewer for printk subsystem. He is author of
     the rework and is familiar with the code and history.

   - Fix locking in serial8250_do_startup() to prevent lockdep report.

   - Few code cleanups"

* tag 'printk-for-5.10' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/printk/linux: (27 commits)
  printk: Use fallthrough pseudo-keyword
  printk: reduce setup_text_buf size to LOG_LINE_MAX
  printk: avoid and/or handle record truncation
  printk: remove dict ring
  printk: move dictionary keys to dev_printk_info
  printk: move printk_info into separate array
  printk: reimplement log_cont using record extension
  printk: ringbuffer: add finalization/extension support
  printk: ringbuffer: change representation of states
  printk: ringbuffer: clear initial reserved fields
  printk: ringbuffer: add BLK_DATALESS() macro
  printk: ringbuffer: relocate get_data()
  printk: ringbuffer: avoid memcpy() on state_var
  printk: ringbuffer: fix setting state in desc_read()
  kernel.h: Move oops_in_progress to printk.h
  scripts/gdb: update for lockless printk ringbuffer
  scripts/gdb: add utils.read_ulong()
  docs: vmcoreinfo: add lockless printk ringbuffer vmcoreinfo
  printk: reduce LOG_BUF_SHIFT range for H8300
  printk: ringbuffer: support dataless records
  ...
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/gdbmacros.txt b/Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/gdbmacros.txt
index 220d0a8..82aecdc 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/gdbmacros.txt
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/gdbmacros.txt
@@ -170,57 +170,82 @@
 	address the kernel panicked.
 end
 
-define dump_log_idx
-	set $idx = $arg0
-	if ($argc > 1)
-		set $prev_flags = $arg1
+define dump_record
+	set var $desc = $arg0
+	set var $info = $arg1
+	if ($argc > 2)
+		set var $prev_flags = $arg2
 	else
-		set $prev_flags = 0
-	end
-	set $msg = ((struct printk_log *) (log_buf + $idx))
-	set $prefix = 1
-	set $newline = 1
-	set $log = log_buf + $idx + sizeof(*$msg)
-
-	# prev & LOG_CONT && !(msg->flags & LOG_PREIX)
-	if (($prev_flags & 8) && !($msg->flags & 4))
-		set $prefix = 0
+		set var $prev_flags = 0
 	end
 
-	# msg->flags & LOG_CONT
-	if ($msg->flags & 8)
+	set var $prefix = 1
+	set var $newline = 1
+
+	set var $begin = $desc->text_blk_lpos.begin % (1U << prb->text_data_ring.size_bits)
+	set var $next = $desc->text_blk_lpos.next % (1U << prb->text_data_ring.size_bits)
+
+	# handle data-less record
+	if ($begin & 1)
+		set var $text_len = 0
+		set var $log = ""
+	else
+		# handle wrapping data block
+		if ($begin > $next)
+			set var $begin = 0
+		end
+
+		# skip over descriptor id
+		set var $begin = $begin + sizeof(long)
+
+		# handle truncated message
+		if ($next - $begin < $info->text_len)
+			set var $text_len = $next - $begin
+		else
+			set var $text_len = $info->text_len
+		end
+
+		set var $log = &prb->text_data_ring.data[$begin]
+	end
+
+	# prev & LOG_CONT && !(info->flags & LOG_PREIX)
+	if (($prev_flags & 8) && !($info->flags & 4))
+		set var $prefix = 0
+	end
+
+	# info->flags & LOG_CONT
+	if ($info->flags & 8)
 		# (prev & LOG_CONT && !(prev & LOG_NEWLINE))
 		if (($prev_flags & 8) && !($prev_flags & 2))
-			set $prefix = 0
+			set var $prefix = 0
 		end
-		# (!(msg->flags & LOG_NEWLINE))
-		if (!($msg->flags & 2))
-			set $newline = 0
+		# (!(info->flags & LOG_NEWLINE))
+		if (!($info->flags & 2))
+			set var $newline = 0
 		end
 	end
 
 	if ($prefix)
-		printf "[%5lu.%06lu] ", $msg->ts_nsec / 1000000000, $msg->ts_nsec % 1000000000
+		printf "[%5lu.%06lu] ", $info->ts_nsec / 1000000000, $info->ts_nsec % 1000000000
 	end
-	if ($msg->text_len != 0)
-		eval "printf \"%%%d.%ds\", $log", $msg->text_len, $msg->text_len
+	if ($text_len)
+		eval "printf \"%%%d.%ds\", $log", $text_len, $text_len
 	end
 	if ($newline)
 		printf "\n"
 	end
-	if ($msg->dict_len > 0)
-		set $dict = $log + $msg->text_len
-		set $idx = 0
-		set $line = 1
-		while ($idx < $msg->dict_len)
-			if ($line)
-				printf " "
-				set $line = 0
-			end
-			set $c = $dict[$idx]
+
+	# handle dictionary data
+
+	set var $dict = &$info->dev_info.subsystem[0]
+	set var $dict_len = sizeof($info->dev_info.subsystem)
+	if ($dict[0] != '\0')
+		printf " SUBSYSTEM="
+		set var $idx = 0
+		while ($idx < $dict_len)
+			set var $c = $dict[$idx]
 			if ($c == '\0')
-				printf "\n"
-				set $line = 1
+				loop_break
 			else
 				if ($c < ' ' || $c >= 127 || $c == '\\')
 					printf "\\x%02x", $c
@@ -228,33 +253,67 @@
 					printf "%c", $c
 				end
 			end
-			set $idx = $idx + 1
+			set var $idx = $idx + 1
+		end
+		printf "\n"
+	end
+
+	set var $dict = &$info->dev_info.device[0]
+	set var $dict_len = sizeof($info->dev_info.device)
+	if ($dict[0] != '\0')
+		printf " DEVICE="
+		set var $idx = 0
+		while ($idx < $dict_len)
+			set var $c = $dict[$idx]
+			if ($c == '\0')
+				loop_break
+			else
+				if ($c < ' ' || $c >= 127 || $c == '\\')
+					printf "\\x%02x", $c
+				else
+					printf "%c", $c
+				end
+			end
+			set var $idx = $idx + 1
 		end
 		printf "\n"
 	end
 end
-document dump_log_idx
-	Dump a single log given its index in the log buffer.  The first
-	parameter is the index into log_buf, the second is optional and
-	specified the previous log buffer's flags, used for properly
-	formatting continued lines.
+document dump_record
+	Dump a single record. The first parameter is the descriptor,
+	the second parameter is the info, the third parameter is
+	optional and specifies the previous record's flags, used for
+	properly formatting continued lines.
 end
 
 define dmesg
-	set $i = log_first_idx
-	set $end_idx = log_first_idx
-	set $prev_flags = 0
+	# definitions from kernel/printk/printk_ringbuffer.h
+	set var $desc_committed = 1
+	set var $desc_finalized = 2
+	set var $desc_sv_bits = sizeof(long) * 8
+	set var $desc_flags_shift = $desc_sv_bits - 2
+	set var $desc_flags_mask = 3 << $desc_flags_shift
+	set var $id_mask = ~$desc_flags_mask
+
+	set var $desc_count = 1U << prb->desc_ring.count_bits
+	set var $prev_flags = 0
+
+	set var $id = prb->desc_ring.tail_id.counter
+	set var $end_id = prb->desc_ring.head_id.counter
 
 	while (1)
-		set $msg = ((struct printk_log *) (log_buf + $i))
-		if ($msg->len == 0)
-			set $i = 0
-		else
-			dump_log_idx $i $prev_flags
-			set $i = $i + $msg->len
-			set $prev_flags = $msg->flags
+		set var $desc = &prb->desc_ring.descs[$id % $desc_count]
+		set var $info = &prb->desc_ring.infos[$id % $desc_count]
+
+		# skip non-committed record
+		set var $state = 3 & ($desc->state_var.counter >> $desc_flags_shift)
+		if ($state == $desc_committed || $state == $desc_finalized)
+			dump_record $desc $info $prev_flags
+			set var $prev_flags = $info->flags
 		end
-		if ($i == $end_idx)
+
+		set var $id = ($id + 1) & $id_mask
+		if ($id == $end_id)
 			loop_break
 		end
 	end
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/vmcoreinfo.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/vmcoreinfo.rst
index 2baad0b..e44a6c0 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/vmcoreinfo.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/vmcoreinfo.rst
@@ -189,50 +189,123 @@
 Free areas descriptor. User-space tools use this value to iterate the
 free_area ranges. MAX_ORDER is used by the zone buddy allocator.
 
-log_first_idx
--------------
+prb
+---
 
-Index of the first record stored in the buffer log_buf. Used by
-user-space tools to read the strings in the log_buf.
+A pointer to the printk ringbuffer (struct printk_ringbuffer). This
+may be pointing to the static boot ringbuffer or the dynamically
+allocated ringbuffer, depending on when the the core dump occurred.
+Used by user-space tools to read the active kernel log buffer.
 
-log_buf
--------
+printk_rb_static
+----------------
 
-Console output is written to the ring buffer log_buf at index
-log_first_idx. Used to get the kernel log.
+A pointer to the static boot printk ringbuffer. If @prb has a
+different value, this is useful for viewing the initial boot messages,
+which may have been overwritten in the dynamically allocated
+ringbuffer.
 
-log_buf_len
------------
-
-log_buf's length.
-
-clear_idx
+clear_seq
 ---------
 
-The index that the next printk() record to read after the last clear
-command. It indicates the first record after the last SYSLOG_ACTION
-_CLEAR, like issued by 'dmesg -c'. Used by user-space tools to dump
-the dmesg log.
+The sequence number of the printk() record after the last clear
+command. It indicates the first record after the last
+SYSLOG_ACTION_CLEAR, like issued by 'dmesg -c'. Used by user-space
+tools to dump a subset of the dmesg log.
 
-log_next_idx
-------------
+printk_ringbuffer
+-----------------
 
-The index of the next record to store in the buffer log_buf. Used to
-compute the index of the current buffer position.
+The size of a printk_ringbuffer structure. This structure contains all
+information required for accessing the various components of the
+kernel log buffer.
 
-printk_log
-----------
+(printk_ringbuffer, desc_ring|text_data_ring|dict_data_ring|fail)
+-----------------------------------------------------------------
 
-The size of a structure printk_log. Used to compute the size of
-messages, and extract dmesg log. It encapsulates header information for
-log_buf, such as timestamp, syslog level, etc.
+Offsets for the various components of the printk ringbuffer. Used by
+user-space tools to view the kernel log buffer without requiring the
+declaration of the structure.
 
-(printk_log, ts_nsec|len|text_len|dict_len)
--------------------------------------------
+prb_desc_ring
+-------------
 
-It represents field offsets in struct printk_log. User space tools
-parse it and check whether the values of printk_log's members have been
-changed.
+The size of the prb_desc_ring structure. This structure contains
+information about the set of record descriptors.
+
+(prb_desc_ring, count_bits|descs|head_id|tail_id)
+-------------------------------------------------
+
+Offsets for the fields describing the set of record descriptors. Used
+by user-space tools to be able to traverse the descriptors without
+requiring the declaration of the structure.
+
+prb_desc
+--------
+
+The size of the prb_desc structure. This structure contains
+information about a single record descriptor.
+
+(prb_desc, info|state_var|text_blk_lpos|dict_blk_lpos)
+------------------------------------------------------
+
+Offsets for the fields describing a record descriptors. Used by
+user-space tools to be able to read descriptors without requiring
+the declaration of the structure.
+
+prb_data_blk_lpos
+-----------------
+
+The size of the prb_data_blk_lpos structure. This structure contains
+information about where the text or dictionary data (data block) is
+located within the respective data ring.
+
+(prb_data_blk_lpos, begin|next)
+-------------------------------
+
+Offsets for the fields describing the location of a data block. Used
+by user-space tools to be able to locate data blocks without
+requiring the declaration of the structure.
+
+printk_info
+-----------
+
+The size of the printk_info structure. This structure contains all
+the meta-data for a record.
+
+(printk_info, seq|ts_nsec|text_len|dict_len|caller_id)
+------------------------------------------------------
+
+Offsets for the fields providing the meta-data for a record. Used by
+user-space tools to be able to read the information without requiring
+the declaration of the structure.
+
+prb_data_ring
+-------------
+
+The size of the prb_data_ring structure. This structure contains
+information about a set of data blocks.
+
+(prb_data_ring, size_bits|data|head_lpos|tail_lpos)
+---------------------------------------------------
+
+Offsets for the fields describing a set of data blocks. Used by
+user-space tools to be able to access the data blocks without
+requiring the declaration of the structure.
+
+atomic_long_t
+-------------
+
+The size of the atomic_long_t structure. Used by user-space tools to
+be able to copy the full structure, regardless of its
+architecture-specific implementation.
+
+(atomic_long_t, counter)
+------------------------
+
+Offset for the long value of an atomic_long_t variable. Used by
+user-space tools to access the long value without requiring the
+architecture-specific declaration.
 
 (free_area.free_list, MIGRATE_TYPES)
 ------------------------------------
diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
index 71291bb..6da16c3 100644
--- a/MAINTAINERS
+++ b/MAINTAINERS
@@ -13970,6 +13970,7 @@
 M:	Petr Mladek <pmladek@suse.com>
 M:	Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com>
 R:	Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
+R:	John Ogness <john.ogness@linutronix.de>
 S:	Maintained
 F:	include/linux/printk.h
 F:	kernel/printk/
diff --git a/drivers/base/core.c b/drivers/base/core.c
index bb5806a..f90e9f7 100644
--- a/drivers/base/core.c
+++ b/drivers/base/core.c
@@ -4061,22 +4061,21 @@
  */
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK
-static int
-create_syslog_header(const struct device *dev, char *hdr, size_t hdrlen)
+static void
+set_dev_info(const struct device *dev, struct dev_printk_info *dev_info)
 {
 	const char *subsys;
-	size_t pos = 0;
+
+	memset(dev_info, 0, sizeof(*dev_info));
 
 	if (dev->class)
 		subsys = dev->class->name;
 	else if (dev->bus)
 		subsys = dev->bus->name;
 	else
-		return 0;
+		return;
 
-	pos += snprintf(hdr + pos, hdrlen - pos, "SUBSYSTEM=%s", subsys);
-	if (pos >= hdrlen)
-		goto overflow;
+	strscpy(dev_info->subsystem, subsys, sizeof(dev_info->subsystem));
 
 	/*
 	 * Add device identifier DEVICE=:
@@ -4092,41 +4091,28 @@
 			c = 'b';
 		else
 			c = 'c';
-		pos++;
-		pos += snprintf(hdr + pos, hdrlen - pos,
-				"DEVICE=%c%u:%u",
-				c, MAJOR(dev->devt), MINOR(dev->devt));
+
+		snprintf(dev_info->device, sizeof(dev_info->device),
+			 "%c%u:%u", c, MAJOR(dev->devt), MINOR(dev->devt));
 	} else if (strcmp(subsys, "net") == 0) {
 		struct net_device *net = to_net_dev(dev);
 
-		pos++;
-		pos += snprintf(hdr + pos, hdrlen - pos,
-				"DEVICE=n%u", net->ifindex);
+		snprintf(dev_info->device, sizeof(dev_info->device),
+			 "n%u", net->ifindex);
 	} else {
-		pos++;
-		pos += snprintf(hdr + pos, hdrlen - pos,
-				"DEVICE=+%s:%s", subsys, dev_name(dev));
+		snprintf(dev_info->device, sizeof(dev_info->device),
+			 "+%s:%s", subsys, dev_name(dev));
 	}
-
-	if (pos >= hdrlen)
-		goto overflow;
-
-	return pos;
-
-overflow:
-	dev_WARN(dev, "device/subsystem name too long");
-	return 0;
 }
 
 int dev_vprintk_emit(int level, const struct device *dev,
 		     const char *fmt, va_list args)
 {
-	char hdr[128];
-	size_t hdrlen;
+	struct dev_printk_info dev_info;
 
-	hdrlen = create_syslog_header(dev, hdr, sizeof(hdr));
+	set_dev_info(dev, &dev_info);
 
-	return vprintk_emit(0, level, hdrlen ? hdr : NULL, hdrlen, fmt, args);
+	return vprintk_emit(0, level, &dev_info, fmt, args);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(dev_vprintk_emit);
 
diff --git a/include/linux/crash_core.h b/include/linux/crash_core.h
index 6594dbc..206bde8 100644
--- a/include/linux/crash_core.h
+++ b/include/linux/crash_core.h
@@ -55,6 +55,9 @@
 #define VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(name, field) \
 	vmcoreinfo_append_str("OFFSET(%s.%s)=%lu\n", #name, #field, \
 			      (unsigned long)offsetof(struct name, field))
+#define VMCOREINFO_TYPE_OFFSET(name, field) \
+	vmcoreinfo_append_str("OFFSET(%s.%s)=%lu\n", #name, #field, \
+			      (unsigned long)offsetof(name, field))
 #define VMCOREINFO_LENGTH(name, value) \
 	vmcoreinfo_append_str("LENGTH(%s)=%lu\n", #name, (unsigned long)value)
 #define VMCOREINFO_NUMBER(name) \
diff --git a/include/linux/debug_locks.h b/include/linux/debug_locks.h
index e7e45f0..2915f56 100644
--- a/include/linux/debug_locks.h
+++ b/include/linux/debug_locks.h
@@ -2,9 +2,9 @@
 #ifndef __LINUX_DEBUG_LOCKING_H
 #define __LINUX_DEBUG_LOCKING_H
 
-#include <linux/kernel.h>
 #include <linux/atomic.h>
 #include <linux/bug.h>
+#include <linux/printk.h>
 
 struct task_struct;
 
diff --git a/include/linux/dev_printk.h b/include/linux/dev_printk.h
index 3028b64..6f00955 100644
--- a/include/linux/dev_printk.h
+++ b/include/linux/dev_printk.h
@@ -21,6 +21,14 @@
 
 struct device;
 
+#define PRINTK_INFO_SUBSYSTEM_LEN	16
+#define PRINTK_INFO_DEVICE_LEN		48
+
+struct dev_printk_info {
+	char subsystem[PRINTK_INFO_SUBSYSTEM_LEN];
+	char device[PRINTK_INFO_DEVICE_LEN];
+};
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK
 
 __printf(3, 0) __cold
diff --git a/include/linux/kernel.h b/include/linux/kernel.h
index c25b8e4..e4aa29b 100644
--- a/include/linux/kernel.h
+++ b/include/linux/kernel.h
@@ -526,7 +526,6 @@
 #endif /* CONFIG_SMP */
 
 extern void bust_spinlocks(int yes);
-extern int oops_in_progress;		/* If set, an oops, panic(), BUG() or die() is in progress */
 extern int panic_timeout;
 extern unsigned long panic_print;
 extern int panic_on_oops;
diff --git a/include/linux/printk.h b/include/linux/printk.h
index 34c1a7b..7847963 100644
--- a/include/linux/printk.h
+++ b/include/linux/printk.h
@@ -12,6 +12,8 @@
 extern const char linux_banner[];
 extern const char linux_proc_banner[];
 
+extern int oops_in_progress;	/* If set, an oops, panic(), BUG() or die() is in progress */
+
 #define PRINTK_MAX_SINGLE_HEADER_LEN 2
 
 static inline int printk_get_level(const char *buffer)
@@ -159,10 +161,12 @@
 static inline void printk_nmi_direct_exit(void) { }
 #endif /* PRINTK_NMI */
 
+struct dev_printk_info;
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK
-asmlinkage __printf(5, 0)
+asmlinkage __printf(4, 0)
 int vprintk_emit(int facility, int level,
-		 const char *dict, size_t dictlen,
+		 const struct dev_printk_info *dev_info,
 		 const char *fmt, va_list args);
 
 asmlinkage __printf(1, 0)
diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
index c0f56e4..2a583ef 100644
--- a/init/Kconfig
+++ b/init/Kconfig
@@ -682,7 +682,8 @@
 
 config LOG_BUF_SHIFT
 	int "Kernel log buffer size (16 => 64KB, 17 => 128KB)"
-	range 12 25
+	range 12 25 if !H8300
+	range 12 19 if H8300
 	default 17
 	depends on PRINTK
 	help
diff --git a/kernel/printk/Makefile b/kernel/printk/Makefile
index 4d052fc..eee3dc9 100644
--- a/kernel/printk/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/printk/Makefile
@@ -2,3 +2,4 @@
 obj-y	= printk.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_PRINTK)	+= printk_safe.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_A11Y_BRAILLE_CONSOLE)	+= braille.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_PRINTK)	+= printk_ringbuffer.o
diff --git a/kernel/printk/internal.h b/kernel/printk/internal.h
index 660f9a6..3a8fd49 100644
--- a/kernel/printk/internal.h
+++ b/kernel/printk/internal.h
@@ -14,9 +14,9 @@
 
 extern raw_spinlock_t logbuf_lock;
 
-__printf(5, 0)
+__printf(4, 0)
 int vprintk_store(int facility, int level,
-		  const char *dict, size_t dictlen,
+		  const struct dev_printk_info *dev_info,
 		  const char *fmt, va_list args);
 
 __printf(1, 0) int vprintk_default(const char *fmt, va_list args);
diff --git a/kernel/printk/printk.c b/kernel/printk/printk.c
index 9b75f6b..fe64a49 100644
--- a/kernel/printk/printk.c
+++ b/kernel/printk/printk.c
@@ -55,6 +55,7 @@
 #define CREATE_TRACE_POINTS
 #include <trace/events/printk.h>
 
+#include "printk_ringbuffer.h"
 #include "console_cmdline.h"
 #include "braille.h"
 #include "internal.h"
@@ -294,30 +295,22 @@
 static int console_msg_format = MSG_FORMAT_DEFAULT;
 
 /*
- * The printk log buffer consists of a chain of concatenated variable
- * length records. Every record starts with a record header, containing
- * the overall length of the record.
+ * The printk log buffer consists of a sequenced collection of records, each
+ * containing variable length message text. Every record also contains its
+ * own meta-data (@info).
  *
- * The heads to the first and last entry in the buffer, as well as the
- * sequence numbers of these entries are maintained when messages are
- * stored.
+ * Every record meta-data carries the timestamp in microseconds, as well as
+ * the standard userspace syslog level and syslog facility. The usual kernel
+ * messages use LOG_KERN; userspace-injected messages always carry a matching
+ * syslog facility, by default LOG_USER. The origin of every message can be
+ * reliably determined that way.
  *
- * If the heads indicate available messages, the length in the header
- * tells the start next message. A length == 0 for the next message
- * indicates a wrap-around to the beginning of the buffer.
+ * The human readable log message of a record is available in @text, the
+ * length of the message text in @text_len. The stored message is not
+ * terminated.
  *
- * Every record carries the monotonic timestamp in microseconds, as well as
- * the standard userspace syslog level and syslog facility. The usual
- * kernel messages use LOG_KERN; userspace-injected messages always carry
- * a matching syslog facility, by default LOG_USER. The origin of every
- * message can be reliably determined that way.
- *
- * The human readable log message directly follows the message header. The
- * length of the message text is stored in the header, the stored message
- * is not terminated.
- *
- * Optionally, a message can carry a dictionary of properties (key/value pairs),
- * to provide userspace with a machine-readable message context.
+ * Optionally, a record can carry a dictionary of properties (key/value
+ * pairs), to provide userspace with a machine-readable message context.
  *
  * Examples for well-defined, commonly used property names are:
  *   DEVICE=b12:8               device identifier
@@ -327,25 +320,22 @@
  *                                +sound:card0  subsystem:devname
  *   SUBSYSTEM=pci              driver-core subsystem name
  *
- * Valid characters in property names are [a-zA-Z0-9.-_]. The plain text value
- * follows directly after a '=' character. Every property is terminated by
- * a '\0' character. The last property is not terminated.
+ * Valid characters in property names are [a-zA-Z0-9.-_]. Property names
+ * and values are terminated by a '\0' character.
  *
- * Example of a message structure:
- *   0000  ff 8f 00 00 00 00 00 00      monotonic time in nsec
- *   0008  34 00                        record is 52 bytes long
- *   000a        0b 00                  text is 11 bytes long
- *   000c              1f 00            dictionary is 23 bytes long
- *   000e                    03 00      LOG_KERN (facility) LOG_ERR (level)
- *   0010  69 74 27 73 20 61 20 6c      "it's a l"
- *         69 6e 65                     "ine"
- *   001b           44 45 56 49 43      "DEVIC"
- *         45 3d 62 38 3a 32 00 44      "E=b8:2\0D"
- *         52 49 56 45 52 3d 62 75      "RIVER=bu"
- *         67                           "g"
- *   0032     00 00 00                  padding to next message header
+ * Example of record values:
+ *   record.text_buf                = "it's a line" (unterminated)
+ *   record.info.seq                = 56
+ *   record.info.ts_nsec            = 36863
+ *   record.info.text_len           = 11
+ *   record.info.facility           = 0 (LOG_KERN)
+ *   record.info.flags              = 0
+ *   record.info.level              = 3 (LOG_ERR)
+ *   record.info.caller_id          = 299 (task 299)
+ *   record.info.dev_info.subsystem = "pci" (terminated)
+ *   record.info.dev_info.device    = "+pci:0000:00:01.0" (terminated)
  *
- * The 'struct printk_log' buffer header must never be directly exported to
+ * The 'struct printk_info' buffer must never be directly exported to
  * userspace, it is a kernel-private implementation detail that might
  * need to be changed in the future, when the requirements change.
  *
@@ -365,23 +355,6 @@
 	LOG_CONT	= 8,	/* text is a fragment of a continuation line */
 };
 
-struct printk_log {
-	u64 ts_nsec;		/* timestamp in nanoseconds */
-	u16 len;		/* length of entire record */
-	u16 text_len;		/* length of text buffer */
-	u16 dict_len;		/* length of dictionary buffer */
-	u8 facility;		/* syslog facility */
-	u8 flags:5;		/* internal record flags */
-	u8 level:3;		/* syslog level */
-#ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK_CALLER
-	u32 caller_id;            /* thread id or processor id */
-#endif
-}
-#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS
-__packed __aligned(4)
-#endif
-;
-
 /*
  * The logbuf_lock protects kmsg buffer, indices, counters.  This can be taken
  * within the scheduler's rq lock. It must be released before calling
@@ -421,26 +394,16 @@
 DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(log_wait);
 /* the next printk record to read by syslog(READ) or /proc/kmsg */
 static u64 syslog_seq;
-static u32 syslog_idx;
 static size_t syslog_partial;
 static bool syslog_time;
 
-/* index and sequence number of the first record stored in the buffer */
-static u64 log_first_seq;
-static u32 log_first_idx;
-
-/* index and sequence number of the next record to store in the buffer */
-static u64 log_next_seq;
-static u32 log_next_idx;
-
 /* the next printk record to write to the console */
 static u64 console_seq;
-static u32 console_idx;
 static u64 exclusive_console_stop_seq;
+static unsigned long console_dropped;
 
 /* the next printk record to read after the last 'clear' command */
 static u64 clear_seq;
-static u32 clear_idx;
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK_CALLER
 #define PREFIX_MAX		48
@@ -453,7 +416,7 @@
 #define LOG_FACILITY(v)		((v) >> 3 & 0xff)
 
 /* record buffer */
-#define LOG_ALIGN __alignof__(struct printk_log)
+#define LOG_ALIGN __alignof__(unsigned long)
 #define __LOG_BUF_LEN (1 << CONFIG_LOG_BUF_SHIFT)
 #define LOG_BUF_LEN_MAX (u32)(1 << 31)
 static char __log_buf[__LOG_BUF_LEN] __aligned(LOG_ALIGN);
@@ -461,6 +424,23 @@
 static u32 log_buf_len = __LOG_BUF_LEN;
 
 /*
+ * Define the average message size. This only affects the number of
+ * descriptors that will be available. Underestimating is better than
+ * overestimating (too many available descriptors is better than not enough).
+ */
+#define PRB_AVGBITS 5	/* 32 character average length */
+
+#if CONFIG_LOG_BUF_SHIFT <= PRB_AVGBITS
+#error CONFIG_LOG_BUF_SHIFT value too small.
+#endif
+_DEFINE_PRINTKRB(printk_rb_static, CONFIG_LOG_BUF_SHIFT - PRB_AVGBITS,
+		 PRB_AVGBITS, &__log_buf[0]);
+
+static struct printk_ringbuffer printk_rb_dynamic;
+
+static struct printk_ringbuffer *prb = &printk_rb_static;
+
+/*
  * We cannot access per-CPU data (e.g. per-CPU flush irq_work) before
  * per_cpu_areas are initialised. This variable is set to true when
  * it's safe to access per-CPU data.
@@ -484,108 +464,6 @@
 	return log_buf_len;
 }
 
-/* human readable text of the record */
-static char *log_text(const struct printk_log *msg)
-{
-	return (char *)msg + sizeof(struct printk_log);
-}
-
-/* optional key/value pair dictionary attached to the record */
-static char *log_dict(const struct printk_log *msg)
-{
-	return (char *)msg + sizeof(struct printk_log) + msg->text_len;
-}
-
-/* get record by index; idx must point to valid msg */
-static struct printk_log *log_from_idx(u32 idx)
-{
-	struct printk_log *msg = (struct printk_log *)(log_buf + idx);
-
-	/*
-	 * A length == 0 record is the end of buffer marker. Wrap around and
-	 * read the message at the start of the buffer.
-	 */
-	if (!msg->len)
-		return (struct printk_log *)log_buf;
-	return msg;
-}
-
-/* get next record; idx must point to valid msg */
-static u32 log_next(u32 idx)
-{
-	struct printk_log *msg = (struct printk_log *)(log_buf + idx);
-
-	/* length == 0 indicates the end of the buffer; wrap */
-	/*
-	 * A length == 0 record is the end of buffer marker. Wrap around and
-	 * read the message at the start of the buffer as *this* one, and
-	 * return the one after that.
-	 */
-	if (!msg->len) {
-		msg = (struct printk_log *)log_buf;
-		return msg->len;
-	}
-	return idx + msg->len;
-}
-
-/*
- * Check whether there is enough free space for the given message.
- *
- * The same values of first_idx and next_idx mean that the buffer
- * is either empty or full.
- *
- * If the buffer is empty, we must respect the position of the indexes.
- * They cannot be reset to the beginning of the buffer.
- */
-static int logbuf_has_space(u32 msg_size, bool empty)
-{
-	u32 free;
-
-	if (log_next_idx > log_first_idx || empty)
-		free = max(log_buf_len - log_next_idx, log_first_idx);
-	else
-		free = log_first_idx - log_next_idx;
-
-	/*
-	 * We need space also for an empty header that signalizes wrapping
-	 * of the buffer.
-	 */
-	return free >= msg_size + sizeof(struct printk_log);
-}
-
-static int log_make_free_space(u32 msg_size)
-{
-	while (log_first_seq < log_next_seq &&
-	       !logbuf_has_space(msg_size, false)) {
-		/* drop old messages until we have enough contiguous space */
-		log_first_idx = log_next(log_first_idx);
-		log_first_seq++;
-	}
-
-	if (clear_seq < log_first_seq) {
-		clear_seq = log_first_seq;
-		clear_idx = log_first_idx;
-	}
-
-	/* sequence numbers are equal, so the log buffer is empty */
-	if (logbuf_has_space(msg_size, log_first_seq == log_next_seq))
-		return 0;
-
-	return -ENOMEM;
-}
-
-/* compute the message size including the padding bytes */
-static u32 msg_used_size(u16 text_len, u16 dict_len, u32 *pad_len)
-{
-	u32 size;
-
-	size = sizeof(struct printk_log) + text_len + dict_len;
-	*pad_len = (-size) & (LOG_ALIGN - 1);
-	size += *pad_len;
-
-	return size;
-}
-
 /*
  * Define how much of the log buffer we could take at maximum. The value
  * must be greater than two. Note that only half of the buffer is available
@@ -594,84 +472,69 @@
 #define MAX_LOG_TAKE_PART 4
 static const char trunc_msg[] = "<truncated>";
 
-static u32 truncate_msg(u16 *text_len, u16 *trunc_msg_len,
-			u16 *dict_len, u32 *pad_len)
+static void truncate_msg(u16 *text_len, u16 *trunc_msg_len)
 {
 	/*
 	 * The message should not take the whole buffer. Otherwise, it might
 	 * get removed too soon.
 	 */
 	u32 max_text_len = log_buf_len / MAX_LOG_TAKE_PART;
+
 	if (*text_len > max_text_len)
 		*text_len = max_text_len;
-	/* enable the warning message */
+
+	/* enable the warning message (if there is room) */
 	*trunc_msg_len = strlen(trunc_msg);
-	/* disable the "dict" completely */
-	*dict_len = 0;
-	/* compute the size again, count also the warning message */
-	return msg_used_size(*text_len + *trunc_msg_len, 0, pad_len);
+	if (*text_len >= *trunc_msg_len)
+		*text_len -= *trunc_msg_len;
+	else
+		*trunc_msg_len = 0;
 }
 
 /* insert record into the buffer, discard old ones, update heads */
 static int log_store(u32 caller_id, int facility, int level,
 		     enum log_flags flags, u64 ts_nsec,
-		     const char *dict, u16 dict_len,
+		     const struct dev_printk_info *dev_info,
 		     const char *text, u16 text_len)
 {
-	struct printk_log *msg;
-	u32 size, pad_len;
+	struct prb_reserved_entry e;
+	struct printk_record r;
 	u16 trunc_msg_len = 0;
 
-	/* number of '\0' padding bytes to next message */
-	size = msg_used_size(text_len, dict_len, &pad_len);
+	prb_rec_init_wr(&r, text_len);
 
-	if (log_make_free_space(size)) {
+	if (!prb_reserve(&e, prb, &r)) {
 		/* truncate the message if it is too long for empty buffer */
-		size = truncate_msg(&text_len, &trunc_msg_len,
-				    &dict_len, &pad_len);
+		truncate_msg(&text_len, &trunc_msg_len);
+		prb_rec_init_wr(&r, text_len + trunc_msg_len);
 		/* survive when the log buffer is too small for trunc_msg */
-		if (log_make_free_space(size))
+		if (!prb_reserve(&e, prb, &r))
 			return 0;
 	}
 
-	if (log_next_idx + size + sizeof(struct printk_log) > log_buf_len) {
-		/*
-		 * This message + an additional empty header does not fit
-		 * at the end of the buffer. Add an empty header with len == 0
-		 * to signify a wrap around.
-		 */
-		memset(log_buf + log_next_idx, 0, sizeof(struct printk_log));
-		log_next_idx = 0;
-	}
-
 	/* fill message */
-	msg = (struct printk_log *)(log_buf + log_next_idx);
-	memcpy(log_text(msg), text, text_len);
-	msg->text_len = text_len;
-	if (trunc_msg_len) {
-		memcpy(log_text(msg) + text_len, trunc_msg, trunc_msg_len);
-		msg->text_len += trunc_msg_len;
-	}
-	memcpy(log_dict(msg), dict, dict_len);
-	msg->dict_len = dict_len;
-	msg->facility = facility;
-	msg->level = level & 7;
-	msg->flags = flags & 0x1f;
+	memcpy(&r.text_buf[0], text, text_len);
+	if (trunc_msg_len)
+		memcpy(&r.text_buf[text_len], trunc_msg, trunc_msg_len);
+	r.info->text_len = text_len + trunc_msg_len;
+	r.info->facility = facility;
+	r.info->level = level & 7;
+	r.info->flags = flags & 0x1f;
 	if (ts_nsec > 0)
-		msg->ts_nsec = ts_nsec;
+		r.info->ts_nsec = ts_nsec;
 	else
-		msg->ts_nsec = local_clock();
-#ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK_CALLER
-	msg->caller_id = caller_id;
-#endif
-	memset(log_dict(msg) + dict_len, 0, pad_len);
-	msg->len = size;
+		r.info->ts_nsec = local_clock();
+	r.info->caller_id = caller_id;
+	if (dev_info)
+		memcpy(&r.info->dev_info, dev_info, sizeof(r.info->dev_info));
 
 	/* insert message */
-	log_next_idx += msg->len;
-	log_next_seq++;
+	if ((flags & LOG_CONT) || !(flags & LOG_NEWLINE))
+		prb_commit(&e);
+	else
+		prb_final_commit(&e);
 
-	return msg->text_len;
+	return (text_len + trunc_msg_len);
 }
 
 int dmesg_restrict = IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SECURITY_DMESG_RESTRICT);
@@ -723,13 +586,13 @@
 		*(*pp)++ = c;
 }
 
-static ssize_t msg_print_ext_header(char *buf, size_t size,
-				    struct printk_log *msg, u64 seq)
+static ssize_t info_print_ext_header(char *buf, size_t size,
+				     struct printk_info *info)
 {
-	u64 ts_usec = msg->ts_nsec;
+	u64 ts_usec = info->ts_nsec;
 	char caller[20];
 #ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK_CALLER
-	u32 id = msg->caller_id;
+	u32 id = info->caller_id;
 
 	snprintf(caller, sizeof(caller), ",caller=%c%u",
 		 id & 0x80000000 ? 'C' : 'T', id & ~0x80000000);
@@ -740,13 +603,13 @@
 	do_div(ts_usec, 1000);
 
 	return scnprintf(buf, size, "%u,%llu,%llu,%c%s;",
-			 (msg->facility << 3) | msg->level, seq, ts_usec,
-			 msg->flags & LOG_CONT ? 'c' : '-', caller);
+			 (info->facility << 3) | info->level, info->seq,
+			 ts_usec, info->flags & LOG_CONT ? 'c' : '-', caller);
 }
 
-static ssize_t msg_print_ext_body(char *buf, size_t size,
-				  char *dict, size_t dict_len,
-				  char *text, size_t text_len)
+static ssize_t msg_add_ext_text(char *buf, size_t size,
+				const char *text, size_t text_len,
+				unsigned char endc)
 {
 	char *p = buf, *e = buf + size;
 	size_t i;
@@ -760,45 +623,56 @@
 		else
 			append_char(&p, e, c);
 	}
-	append_char(&p, e, '\n');
-
-	if (dict_len) {
-		bool line = true;
-
-		for (i = 0; i < dict_len; i++) {
-			unsigned char c = dict[i];
-
-			if (line) {
-				append_char(&p, e, ' ');
-				line = false;
-			}
-
-			if (c == '\0') {
-				append_char(&p, e, '\n');
-				line = true;
-				continue;
-			}
-
-			if (c < ' ' || c >= 127 || c == '\\') {
-				p += scnprintf(p, e - p, "\\x%02x", c);
-				continue;
-			}
-
-			append_char(&p, e, c);
-		}
-		append_char(&p, e, '\n');
-	}
+	append_char(&p, e, endc);
 
 	return p - buf;
 }
 
+static ssize_t msg_add_dict_text(char *buf, size_t size,
+				 const char *key, const char *val)
+{
+	size_t val_len = strlen(val);
+	ssize_t len;
+
+	if (!val_len)
+		return 0;
+
+	len = msg_add_ext_text(buf, size, "", 0, ' ');	/* dict prefix */
+	len += msg_add_ext_text(buf + len, size - len, key, strlen(key), '=');
+	len += msg_add_ext_text(buf + len, size - len, val, val_len, '\n');
+
+	return len;
+}
+
+static ssize_t msg_print_ext_body(char *buf, size_t size,
+				  char *text, size_t text_len,
+				  struct dev_printk_info *dev_info)
+{
+	ssize_t len;
+
+	len = msg_add_ext_text(buf, size, text, text_len, '\n');
+
+	if (!dev_info)
+		goto out;
+
+	len += msg_add_dict_text(buf + len, size - len, "SUBSYSTEM",
+				 dev_info->subsystem);
+	len += msg_add_dict_text(buf + len, size - len, "DEVICE",
+				 dev_info->device);
+out:
+	return len;
+}
+
 /* /dev/kmsg - userspace message inject/listen interface */
 struct devkmsg_user {
 	u64 seq;
-	u32 idx;
 	struct ratelimit_state rs;
 	struct mutex lock;
 	char buf[CONSOLE_EXT_LOG_MAX];
+
+	struct printk_info info;
+	char text_buf[CONSOLE_EXT_LOG_MAX];
+	struct printk_record record;
 };
 
 static __printf(3, 4) __cold
@@ -808,7 +682,7 @@
 	int r;
 
 	va_start(args, fmt);
-	r = vprintk_emit(facility, level, NULL, 0, fmt, args);
+	r = vprintk_emit(facility, level, NULL, fmt, args);
 	va_end(args);
 
 	return r;
@@ -881,7 +755,7 @@
 			    size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
 {
 	struct devkmsg_user *user = file->private_data;
-	struct printk_log *msg;
+	struct printk_record *r = &user->record;
 	size_t len;
 	ssize_t ret;
 
@@ -893,7 +767,7 @@
 		return ret;
 
 	logbuf_lock_irq();
-	while (user->seq == log_next_seq) {
+	if (!prb_read_valid(prb, user->seq, r)) {
 		if (file->f_flags & O_NONBLOCK) {
 			ret = -EAGAIN;
 			logbuf_unlock_irq();
@@ -902,30 +776,26 @@
 
 		logbuf_unlock_irq();
 		ret = wait_event_interruptible(log_wait,
-					       user->seq != log_next_seq);
+					prb_read_valid(prb, user->seq, r));
 		if (ret)
 			goto out;
 		logbuf_lock_irq();
 	}
 
-	if (user->seq < log_first_seq) {
+	if (user->seq < prb_first_valid_seq(prb)) {
 		/* our last seen message is gone, return error and reset */
-		user->idx = log_first_idx;
-		user->seq = log_first_seq;
+		user->seq = prb_first_valid_seq(prb);
 		ret = -EPIPE;
 		logbuf_unlock_irq();
 		goto out;
 	}
 
-	msg = log_from_idx(user->idx);
-	len = msg_print_ext_header(user->buf, sizeof(user->buf),
-				   msg, user->seq);
+	len = info_print_ext_header(user->buf, sizeof(user->buf), r->info);
 	len += msg_print_ext_body(user->buf + len, sizeof(user->buf) - len,
-				  log_dict(msg), msg->dict_len,
-				  log_text(msg), msg->text_len);
+				  &r->text_buf[0], r->info->text_len,
+				  &r->info->dev_info);
 
-	user->idx = log_next(user->idx);
-	user->seq++;
+	user->seq = r->info->seq + 1;
 	logbuf_unlock_irq();
 
 	if (len > count) {
@@ -965,8 +835,7 @@
 	switch (whence) {
 	case SEEK_SET:
 		/* the first record */
-		user->idx = log_first_idx;
-		user->seq = log_first_seq;
+		user->seq = prb_first_valid_seq(prb);
 		break;
 	case SEEK_DATA:
 		/*
@@ -974,13 +843,11 @@
 		 * like issued by 'dmesg -c'. Reading /dev/kmsg itself
 		 * changes no global state, and does not clear anything.
 		 */
-		user->idx = clear_idx;
 		user->seq = clear_seq;
 		break;
 	case SEEK_END:
 		/* after the last record */
-		user->idx = log_next_idx;
-		user->seq = log_next_seq;
+		user->seq = prb_next_seq(prb);
 		break;
 	default:
 		ret = -EINVAL;
@@ -1000,9 +867,9 @@
 	poll_wait(file, &log_wait, wait);
 
 	logbuf_lock_irq();
-	if (user->seq < log_next_seq) {
+	if (prb_read_valid(prb, user->seq, NULL)) {
 		/* return error when data has vanished underneath us */
-		if (user->seq < log_first_seq)
+		if (user->seq < prb_first_valid_seq(prb))
 			ret = EPOLLIN|EPOLLRDNORM|EPOLLERR|EPOLLPRI;
 		else
 			ret = EPOLLIN|EPOLLRDNORM;
@@ -1037,9 +904,11 @@
 
 	mutex_init(&user->lock);
 
+	prb_rec_init_rd(&user->record, &user->info,
+			&user->text_buf[0], sizeof(user->text_buf));
+
 	logbuf_lock_irq();
-	user->idx = log_first_idx;
-	user->seq = log_first_seq;
+	user->seq = prb_first_valid_seq(prb);
 	logbuf_unlock_irq();
 
 	file->private_data = user;
@@ -1080,23 +949,58 @@
  */
 void log_buf_vmcoreinfo_setup(void)
 {
-	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(log_buf);
-	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(log_buf_len);
-	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(log_first_idx);
-	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(clear_idx);
-	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(log_next_idx);
+	struct dev_printk_info *dev_info = NULL;
+
+	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(prb);
+	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(printk_rb_static);
+	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(clear_seq);
+
 	/*
-	 * Export struct printk_log size and field offsets. User space tools can
+	 * Export struct size and field offsets. User space tools can
 	 * parse it and detect any changes to structure down the line.
 	 */
-	VMCOREINFO_STRUCT_SIZE(printk_log);
-	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_log, ts_nsec);
-	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_log, len);
-	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_log, text_len);
-	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_log, dict_len);
-#ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK_CALLER
-	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_log, caller_id);
-#endif
+
+	VMCOREINFO_STRUCT_SIZE(printk_ringbuffer);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_ringbuffer, desc_ring);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_ringbuffer, text_data_ring);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_ringbuffer, fail);
+
+	VMCOREINFO_STRUCT_SIZE(prb_desc_ring);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_desc_ring, count_bits);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_desc_ring, descs);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_desc_ring, infos);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_desc_ring, head_id);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_desc_ring, tail_id);
+
+	VMCOREINFO_STRUCT_SIZE(prb_desc);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_desc, state_var);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_desc, text_blk_lpos);
+
+	VMCOREINFO_STRUCT_SIZE(prb_data_blk_lpos);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_data_blk_lpos, begin);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_data_blk_lpos, next);
+
+	VMCOREINFO_STRUCT_SIZE(printk_info);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_info, seq);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_info, ts_nsec);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_info, text_len);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_info, caller_id);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_info, dev_info);
+
+	VMCOREINFO_STRUCT_SIZE(dev_printk_info);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(dev_printk_info, subsystem);
+	VMCOREINFO_LENGTH(printk_info_subsystem, sizeof(dev_info->subsystem));
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(dev_printk_info, device);
+	VMCOREINFO_LENGTH(printk_info_device, sizeof(dev_info->device));
+
+	VMCOREINFO_STRUCT_SIZE(prb_data_ring);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_data_ring, size_bits);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_data_ring, data);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_data_ring, head_lpos);
+	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(prb_data_ring, tail_lpos);
+
+	VMCOREINFO_SIZE(atomic_long_t);
+	VMCOREINFO_TYPE_OFFSET(atomic_long_t, counter);
 }
 #endif
 
@@ -1174,11 +1078,46 @@
 	__printk_percpu_data_ready = true;
 }
 
+static unsigned int __init add_to_rb(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+				     struct printk_record *r)
+{
+	struct prb_reserved_entry e;
+	struct printk_record dest_r;
+
+	prb_rec_init_wr(&dest_r, r->info->text_len);
+
+	if (!prb_reserve(&e, rb, &dest_r))
+		return 0;
+
+	memcpy(&dest_r.text_buf[0], &r->text_buf[0], r->info->text_len);
+	dest_r.info->text_len = r->info->text_len;
+	dest_r.info->facility = r->info->facility;
+	dest_r.info->level = r->info->level;
+	dest_r.info->flags = r->info->flags;
+	dest_r.info->ts_nsec = r->info->ts_nsec;
+	dest_r.info->caller_id = r->info->caller_id;
+	memcpy(&dest_r.info->dev_info, &r->info->dev_info, sizeof(dest_r.info->dev_info));
+
+	prb_final_commit(&e);
+
+	return prb_record_text_space(&e);
+}
+
+static char setup_text_buf[LOG_LINE_MAX] __initdata;
+
 void __init setup_log_buf(int early)
 {
+	struct printk_info *new_infos;
+	unsigned int new_descs_count;
+	struct prb_desc *new_descs;
+	struct printk_info info;
+	struct printk_record r;
+	size_t new_descs_size;
+	size_t new_infos_size;
 	unsigned long flags;
 	char *new_log_buf;
 	unsigned int free;
+	u64 seq;
 
 	/*
 	 * Some archs call setup_log_buf() multiple times - first is very
@@ -1197,24 +1136,75 @@
 	if (!new_log_buf_len)
 		return;
 
-	new_log_buf = memblock_alloc(new_log_buf_len, LOG_ALIGN);
-	if (unlikely(!new_log_buf)) {
-		pr_err("log_buf_len: %lu bytes not available\n",
-			new_log_buf_len);
+	new_descs_count = new_log_buf_len >> PRB_AVGBITS;
+	if (new_descs_count == 0) {
+		pr_err("new_log_buf_len: %lu too small\n", new_log_buf_len);
 		return;
 	}
 
+	new_log_buf = memblock_alloc(new_log_buf_len, LOG_ALIGN);
+	if (unlikely(!new_log_buf)) {
+		pr_err("log_buf_len: %lu text bytes not available\n",
+		       new_log_buf_len);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	new_descs_size = new_descs_count * sizeof(struct prb_desc);
+	new_descs = memblock_alloc(new_descs_size, LOG_ALIGN);
+	if (unlikely(!new_descs)) {
+		pr_err("log_buf_len: %zu desc bytes not available\n",
+		       new_descs_size);
+		goto err_free_log_buf;
+	}
+
+	new_infos_size = new_descs_count * sizeof(struct printk_info);
+	new_infos = memblock_alloc(new_infos_size, LOG_ALIGN);
+	if (unlikely(!new_infos)) {
+		pr_err("log_buf_len: %zu info bytes not available\n",
+		       new_infos_size);
+		goto err_free_descs;
+	}
+
+	prb_rec_init_rd(&r, &info, &setup_text_buf[0], sizeof(setup_text_buf));
+
+	prb_init(&printk_rb_dynamic,
+		 new_log_buf, ilog2(new_log_buf_len),
+		 new_descs, ilog2(new_descs_count),
+		 new_infos);
+
 	logbuf_lock_irqsave(flags);
+
 	log_buf_len = new_log_buf_len;
 	log_buf = new_log_buf;
 	new_log_buf_len = 0;
-	free = __LOG_BUF_LEN - log_next_idx;
-	memcpy(log_buf, __log_buf, __LOG_BUF_LEN);
+
+	free = __LOG_BUF_LEN;
+	prb_for_each_record(0, &printk_rb_static, seq, &r)
+		free -= add_to_rb(&printk_rb_dynamic, &r);
+
+	/*
+	 * This is early enough that everything is still running on the
+	 * boot CPU and interrupts are disabled. So no new messages will
+	 * appear during the transition to the dynamic buffer.
+	 */
+	prb = &printk_rb_dynamic;
+
 	logbuf_unlock_irqrestore(flags);
 
+	if (seq != prb_next_seq(&printk_rb_static)) {
+		pr_err("dropped %llu messages\n",
+		       prb_next_seq(&printk_rb_static) - seq);
+	}
+
 	pr_info("log_buf_len: %u bytes\n", log_buf_len);
 	pr_info("early log buf free: %u(%u%%)\n",
 		free, (free * 100) / __LOG_BUF_LEN);
+	return;
+
+err_free_descs:
+	memblock_free(__pa(new_descs), new_descs_size);
+err_free_log_buf:
+	memblock_free(__pa(new_log_buf), new_log_buf_len);
 }
 
 static bool __read_mostly ignore_loglevel;
@@ -1321,18 +1311,18 @@
 #define print_caller(id, buf) 0
 #endif
 
-static size_t print_prefix(const struct printk_log *msg, bool syslog,
-			   bool time, char *buf)
+static size_t info_print_prefix(const struct printk_info  *info, bool syslog,
+				bool time, char *buf)
 {
 	size_t len = 0;
 
 	if (syslog)
-		len = print_syslog((msg->facility << 3) | msg->level, buf);
+		len = print_syslog((info->facility << 3) | info->level, buf);
 
 	if (time)
-		len += print_time(msg->ts_nsec, buf + len);
+		len += print_time(info->ts_nsec, buf + len);
 
-	len += print_caller(msg->caller_id, buf + len);
+	len += print_caller(info->caller_id, buf + len);
 
 	if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_PRINTK_CALLER) || time) {
 		buf[len++] = ' ';
@@ -1342,72 +1332,150 @@
 	return len;
 }
 
-static size_t msg_print_text(const struct printk_log *msg, bool syslog,
-			     bool time, char *buf, size_t size)
+/*
+ * Prepare the record for printing. The text is shifted within the given
+ * buffer to avoid a need for another one. The following operations are
+ * done:
+ *
+ *   - Add prefix for each line.
+ *   - Add the trailing newline that has been removed in vprintk_store().
+ *   - Drop truncated lines that do not longer fit into the buffer.
+ *
+ * Return: The length of the updated/prepared text, including the added
+ * prefixes and the newline. The dropped line(s) are not counted.
+ */
+static size_t record_print_text(struct printk_record *r, bool syslog,
+				bool time)
 {
-	const char *text = log_text(msg);
-	size_t text_size = msg->text_len;
-	size_t len = 0;
+	size_t text_len = r->info->text_len;
+	size_t buf_size = r->text_buf_size;
+	char *text = r->text_buf;
 	char prefix[PREFIX_MAX];
-	const size_t prefix_len = print_prefix(msg, syslog, time, prefix);
+	bool truncated = false;
+	size_t prefix_len;
+	size_t line_len;
+	size_t len = 0;
+	char *next;
 
-	do {
-		const char *next = memchr(text, '\n', text_size);
-		size_t text_len;
+	/*
+	 * If the message was truncated because the buffer was not large
+	 * enough, treat the available text as if it were the full text.
+	 */
+	if (text_len > buf_size)
+		text_len = buf_size;
 
+	prefix_len = info_print_prefix(r->info, syslog, time, prefix);
+
+	/*
+	 * @text_len: bytes of unprocessed text
+	 * @line_len: bytes of current line _without_ newline
+	 * @text:     pointer to beginning of current line
+	 * @len:      number of bytes prepared in r->text_buf
+	 */
+	for (;;) {
+		next = memchr(text, '\n', text_len);
 		if (next) {
-			text_len = next - text;
-			next++;
-			text_size -= next - text;
+			line_len = next - text;
 		} else {
-			text_len = text_size;
+			/* Drop truncated line(s). */
+			if (truncated)
+				break;
+			line_len = text_len;
 		}
 
-		if (buf) {
-			if (prefix_len + text_len + 1 >= size - len)
+		/*
+		 * Truncate the text if there is not enough space to add the
+		 * prefix and a trailing newline.
+		 */
+		if (len + prefix_len + text_len + 1 > buf_size) {
+			/* Drop even the current line if no space. */
+			if (len + prefix_len + line_len + 1 > buf_size)
 				break;
 
-			memcpy(buf + len, prefix, prefix_len);
-			len += prefix_len;
-			memcpy(buf + len, text, text_len);
-			len += text_len;
-			buf[len++] = '\n';
-		} else {
-			/* SYSLOG_ACTION_* buffer size only calculation */
-			len += prefix_len + text_len + 1;
+			text_len = buf_size - len - prefix_len - 1;
+			truncated = true;
 		}
 
-		text = next;
-	} while (text);
+		memmove(text + prefix_len, text, text_len);
+		memcpy(text, prefix, prefix_len);
+
+		len += prefix_len + line_len + 1;
+
+		if (text_len == line_len) {
+			/*
+			 * Add the trailing newline removed in
+			 * vprintk_store().
+			 */
+			text[prefix_len + line_len] = '\n';
+			break;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * Advance beyond the added prefix and the related line with
+		 * its newline.
+		 */
+		text += prefix_len + line_len + 1;
+
+		/*
+		 * The remaining text has only decreased by the line with its
+		 * newline.
+		 *
+		 * Note that @text_len can become zero. It happens when @text
+		 * ended with a newline (either due to truncation or the
+		 * original string ending with "\n\n"). The loop is correctly
+		 * repeated and (if not truncated) an empty line with a prefix
+		 * will be prepared.
+		 */
+		text_len -= line_len + 1;
+	}
 
 	return len;
 }
 
+static size_t get_record_print_text_size(struct printk_info *info,
+					 unsigned int line_count,
+					 bool syslog, bool time)
+{
+	char prefix[PREFIX_MAX];
+	size_t prefix_len;
+
+	prefix_len = info_print_prefix(info, syslog, time, prefix);
+
+	/*
+	 * Each line will be preceded with a prefix. The intermediate
+	 * newlines are already within the text, but a final trailing
+	 * newline will be added.
+	 */
+	return ((prefix_len * line_count) + info->text_len + 1);
+}
+
 static int syslog_print(char __user *buf, int size)
 {
+	struct printk_info info;
+	struct printk_record r;
 	char *text;
-	struct printk_log *msg;
 	int len = 0;
 
 	text = kmalloc(LOG_LINE_MAX + PREFIX_MAX, GFP_KERNEL);
 	if (!text)
 		return -ENOMEM;
 
+	prb_rec_init_rd(&r, &info, text, LOG_LINE_MAX + PREFIX_MAX);
+
 	while (size > 0) {
 		size_t n;
 		size_t skip;
 
 		logbuf_lock_irq();
-		if (syslog_seq < log_first_seq) {
-			/* messages are gone, move to first one */
-			syslog_seq = log_first_seq;
-			syslog_idx = log_first_idx;
-			syslog_partial = 0;
-		}
-		if (syslog_seq == log_next_seq) {
+		if (!prb_read_valid(prb, syslog_seq, &r)) {
 			logbuf_unlock_irq();
 			break;
 		}
+		if (r.info->seq != syslog_seq) {
+			/* message is gone, move to next valid one */
+			syslog_seq = r.info->seq;
+			syslog_partial = 0;
+		}
 
 		/*
 		 * To keep reading/counting partial line consistent,
@@ -1417,13 +1485,10 @@
 			syslog_time = printk_time;
 
 		skip = syslog_partial;
-		msg = log_from_idx(syslog_idx);
-		n = msg_print_text(msg, true, syslog_time, text,
-				   LOG_LINE_MAX + PREFIX_MAX);
+		n = record_print_text(&r, true, syslog_time);
 		if (n - syslog_partial <= size) {
 			/* message fits into buffer, move forward */
-			syslog_idx = log_next(syslog_idx);
-			syslog_seq++;
+			syslog_seq = r.info->seq + 1;
 			n -= syslog_partial;
 			syslog_partial = 0;
 		} else if (!len){
@@ -1454,11 +1519,12 @@
 
 static int syslog_print_all(char __user *buf, int size, bool clear)
 {
+	struct printk_info info;
+	unsigned int line_count;
+	struct printk_record r;
 	char *text;
 	int len = 0;
-	u64 next_seq;
 	u64 seq;
-	u32 idx;
 	bool time;
 
 	text = kmalloc(LOG_LINE_MAX + PREFIX_MAX, GFP_KERNEL);
@@ -1471,38 +1537,28 @@
 	 * Find first record that fits, including all following records,
 	 * into the user-provided buffer for this dump.
 	 */
-	seq = clear_seq;
-	idx = clear_idx;
-	while (seq < log_next_seq) {
-		struct printk_log *msg = log_from_idx(idx);
-
-		len += msg_print_text(msg, true, time, NULL, 0);
-		idx = log_next(idx);
-		seq++;
-	}
+	prb_for_each_info(clear_seq, prb, seq, &info, &line_count)
+		len += get_record_print_text_size(&info, line_count, true, time);
 
 	/* move first record forward until length fits into the buffer */
-	seq = clear_seq;
-	idx = clear_idx;
-	while (len > size && seq < log_next_seq) {
-		struct printk_log *msg = log_from_idx(idx);
-
-		len -= msg_print_text(msg, true, time, NULL, 0);
-		idx = log_next(idx);
-		seq++;
+	prb_for_each_info(clear_seq, prb, seq, &info, &line_count) {
+		if (len <= size)
+			break;
+		len -= get_record_print_text_size(&info, line_count, true, time);
 	}
 
-	/* last message fitting into this dump */
-	next_seq = log_next_seq;
+	prb_rec_init_rd(&r, &info, text, LOG_LINE_MAX + PREFIX_MAX);
 
 	len = 0;
-	while (len >= 0 && seq < next_seq) {
-		struct printk_log *msg = log_from_idx(idx);
-		int textlen = msg_print_text(msg, true, time, text,
-					     LOG_LINE_MAX + PREFIX_MAX);
+	prb_for_each_record(seq, prb, seq, &r) {
+		int textlen;
 
-		idx = log_next(idx);
-		seq++;
+		textlen = record_print_text(&r, true, time);
+
+		if (len + textlen > size) {
+			seq--;
+			break;
+		}
 
 		logbuf_unlock_irq();
 		if (copy_to_user(buf + len, text, textlen))
@@ -1511,17 +1567,12 @@
 			len += textlen;
 		logbuf_lock_irq();
 
-		if (seq < log_first_seq) {
-			/* messages are gone, move to next one */
-			seq = log_first_seq;
-			idx = log_first_idx;
-		}
+		if (len < 0)
+			break;
 	}
 
-	if (clear) {
-		clear_seq = log_next_seq;
-		clear_idx = log_next_idx;
-	}
+	if (clear)
+		clear_seq = seq;
 	logbuf_unlock_irq();
 
 	kfree(text);
@@ -1531,8 +1582,7 @@
 static void syslog_clear(void)
 {
 	logbuf_lock_irq();
-	clear_seq = log_next_seq;
-	clear_idx = log_next_idx;
+	clear_seq = prb_next_seq(prb);
 	logbuf_unlock_irq();
 }
 
@@ -1559,7 +1609,7 @@
 		if (!access_ok(buf, len))
 			return -EFAULT;
 		error = wait_event_interruptible(log_wait,
-						 syslog_seq != log_next_seq);
+				prb_read_valid(prb, syslog_seq, NULL));
 		if (error)
 			return error;
 		error = syslog_print(buf, len);
@@ -1567,7 +1617,7 @@
 	/* Read/clear last kernel messages */
 	case SYSLOG_ACTION_READ_CLEAR:
 		clear = true;
-		/* FALL THRU */
+		fallthrough;
 	/* Read last kernel messages */
 	case SYSLOG_ACTION_READ_ALL:
 		if (!buf || len < 0)
@@ -1608,10 +1658,9 @@
 	/* Number of chars in the log buffer */
 	case SYSLOG_ACTION_SIZE_UNREAD:
 		logbuf_lock_irq();
-		if (syslog_seq < log_first_seq) {
+		if (syslog_seq < prb_first_valid_seq(prb)) {
 			/* messages are gone, move to first one */
-			syslog_seq = log_first_seq;
-			syslog_idx = log_first_idx;
+			syslog_seq = prb_first_valid_seq(prb);
 			syslog_partial = 0;
 		}
 		if (source == SYSLOG_FROM_PROC) {
@@ -1620,20 +1669,18 @@
 			 * for pending data, not the size; return the count of
 			 * records, not the length.
 			 */
-			error = log_next_seq - syslog_seq;
+			error = prb_next_seq(prb) - syslog_seq;
 		} else {
-			u64 seq = syslog_seq;
-			u32 idx = syslog_idx;
 			bool time = syslog_partial ? syslog_time : printk_time;
+			struct printk_info info;
+			unsigned int line_count;
+			u64 seq;
 
-			while (seq < log_next_seq) {
-				struct printk_log *msg = log_from_idx(idx);
-
-				error += msg_print_text(msg, true, time, NULL,
-							0);
+			prb_for_each_info(syslog_seq, prb, seq, &info,
+					  &line_count) {
+				error += get_record_print_text_size(&info, line_count,
+								    true, time);
 				time = printk_time;
-				idx = log_next(idx);
-				seq++;
 			}
 			error -= syslog_partial;
 		}
@@ -1804,10 +1851,22 @@
 static void call_console_drivers(const char *ext_text, size_t ext_len,
 				 const char *text, size_t len)
 {
+	static char dropped_text[64];
+	size_t dropped_len = 0;
 	struct console *con;
 
 	trace_console_rcuidle(text, len);
 
+	if (!console_drivers)
+		return;
+
+	if (console_dropped) {
+		dropped_len = snprintf(dropped_text, sizeof(dropped_text),
+				       "** %lu printk messages dropped **\n",
+				       console_dropped);
+		console_dropped = 0;
+	}
+
 	for_each_console(con) {
 		if (exclusive_console && con != exclusive_console)
 			continue;
@@ -1820,8 +1879,11 @@
 			continue;
 		if (con->flags & CON_EXTENDED)
 			con->write(con, ext_text, ext_len);
-		else
+		else {
+			if (dropped_len)
+				con->write(con, dropped_text, dropped_len);
 			con->write(con, text, len);
+		}
 	}
 }
 
@@ -1845,97 +1907,38 @@
 		0x80000000 + raw_smp_processor_id();
 }
 
-/*
- * Continuation lines are buffered, and not committed to the record buffer
- * until the line is complete, or a race forces it. The line fragments
- * though, are printed immediately to the consoles to ensure everything has
- * reached the console in case of a kernel crash.
- */
-static struct cont {
-	char buf[LOG_LINE_MAX];
-	size_t len;			/* length == 0 means unused buffer */
-	u32 caller_id;			/* printk_caller_id() of first print */
-	u64 ts_nsec;			/* time of first print */
-	u8 level;			/* log level of first message */
-	u8 facility;			/* log facility of first message */
-	enum log_flags flags;		/* prefix, newline flags */
-} cont;
-
-static void cont_flush(void)
-{
-	if (cont.len == 0)
-		return;
-
-	log_store(cont.caller_id, cont.facility, cont.level, cont.flags,
-		  cont.ts_nsec, NULL, 0, cont.buf, cont.len);
-	cont.len = 0;
-}
-
-static bool cont_add(u32 caller_id, int facility, int level,
-		     enum log_flags flags, const char *text, size_t len)
-{
-	/* If the line gets too long, split it up in separate records. */
-	if (cont.len + len > sizeof(cont.buf)) {
-		cont_flush();
-		return false;
-	}
-
-	if (!cont.len) {
-		cont.facility = facility;
-		cont.level = level;
-		cont.caller_id = caller_id;
-		cont.ts_nsec = local_clock();
-		cont.flags = flags;
-	}
-
-	memcpy(cont.buf + cont.len, text, len);
-	cont.len += len;
-
-	// The original flags come from the first line,
-	// but later continuations can add a newline.
-	if (flags & LOG_NEWLINE) {
-		cont.flags |= LOG_NEWLINE;
-		cont_flush();
-	}
-
-	return true;
-}
-
-static size_t log_output(int facility, int level, enum log_flags lflags, const char *dict, size_t dictlen, char *text, size_t text_len)
+static size_t log_output(int facility, int level, enum log_flags lflags,
+			 const struct dev_printk_info *dev_info,
+			 char *text, size_t text_len)
 {
 	const u32 caller_id = printk_caller_id();
 
-	/*
-	 * If an earlier line was buffered, and we're a continuation
-	 * write from the same context, try to add it to the buffer.
-	 */
-	if (cont.len) {
-		if (cont.caller_id == caller_id && (lflags & LOG_CONT)) {
-			if (cont_add(caller_id, facility, level, lflags, text, text_len))
-				return text_len;
-		}
-		/* Otherwise, make sure it's flushed */
-		cont_flush();
-	}
+	if (lflags & LOG_CONT) {
+		struct prb_reserved_entry e;
+		struct printk_record r;
 
-	/* Skip empty continuation lines that couldn't be added - they just flush */
-	if (!text_len && (lflags & LOG_CONT))
-		return 0;
-
-	/* If it doesn't end in a newline, try to buffer the current line */
-	if (!(lflags & LOG_NEWLINE)) {
-		if (cont_add(caller_id, facility, level, lflags, text, text_len))
+		prb_rec_init_wr(&r, text_len);
+		if (prb_reserve_in_last(&e, prb, &r, caller_id, LOG_LINE_MAX)) {
+			memcpy(&r.text_buf[r.info->text_len], text, text_len);
+			r.info->text_len += text_len;
+			if (lflags & LOG_NEWLINE) {
+				r.info->flags |= LOG_NEWLINE;
+				prb_final_commit(&e);
+			} else {
+				prb_commit(&e);
+			}
 			return text_len;
+		}
 	}
 
 	/* Store it in the record log */
 	return log_store(caller_id, facility, level, lflags, 0,
-			 dict, dictlen, text, text_len);
+			 dev_info, text, text_len);
 }
 
 /* Must be called under logbuf_lock. */
 int vprintk_store(int facility, int level,
-		  const char *dict, size_t dictlen,
+		  const struct dev_printk_info *dev_info,
 		  const char *fmt, va_list args)
 {
 	static char textbuf[LOG_LINE_MAX];
@@ -1977,21 +1980,19 @@
 	if (level == LOGLEVEL_DEFAULT)
 		level = default_message_loglevel;
 
-	if (dict)
+	if (dev_info)
 		lflags |= LOG_NEWLINE;
 
-	return log_output(facility, level, lflags,
-			  dict, dictlen, text, text_len);
+	return log_output(facility, level, lflags, dev_info, text, text_len);
 }
 
 asmlinkage int vprintk_emit(int facility, int level,
-			    const char *dict, size_t dictlen,
+			    const struct dev_printk_info *dev_info,
 			    const char *fmt, va_list args)
 {
 	int printed_len;
-	bool in_sched = false, pending_output;
+	bool in_sched = false;
 	unsigned long flags;
-	u64 curr_log_seq;
 
 	/* Suppress unimportant messages after panic happens */
 	if (unlikely(suppress_printk))
@@ -2007,13 +2008,11 @@
 
 	/* This stops the holder of console_sem just where we want him */
 	logbuf_lock_irqsave(flags);
-	curr_log_seq = log_next_seq;
-	printed_len = vprintk_store(facility, level, dict, dictlen, fmt, args);
-	pending_output = (curr_log_seq != log_next_seq);
+	printed_len = vprintk_store(facility, level, dev_info, fmt, args);
 	logbuf_unlock_irqrestore(flags);
 
 	/* If called from the scheduler, we can not call up(). */
-	if (!in_sched && pending_output) {
+	if (!in_sched) {
 		/*
 		 * Disable preemption to avoid being preempted while holding
 		 * console_sem which would prevent anyone from printing to
@@ -2030,8 +2029,7 @@
 		preempt_enable();
 	}
 
-	if (pending_output)
-		wake_up_klogd();
+	wake_up_klogd();
 	return printed_len;
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(vprintk_emit);
@@ -2044,7 +2042,7 @@
 
 int vprintk_default(const char *fmt, va_list args)
 {
-	return vprintk_emit(0, LOGLEVEL_DEFAULT, NULL, 0, fmt, args);
+	return vprintk_emit(0, LOGLEVEL_DEFAULT, NULL, fmt, args);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(vprintk_default);
 
@@ -2088,30 +2086,31 @@
 #define PREFIX_MAX		0
 #define printk_time		false
 
+#define prb_read_valid(rb, seq, r)	false
+#define prb_first_valid_seq(rb)		0
+
 static u64 syslog_seq;
-static u32 syslog_idx;
 static u64 console_seq;
-static u32 console_idx;
 static u64 exclusive_console_stop_seq;
-static u64 log_first_seq;
-static u32 log_first_idx;
-static u64 log_next_seq;
-static char *log_text(const struct printk_log *msg) { return NULL; }
-static char *log_dict(const struct printk_log *msg) { return NULL; }
-static struct printk_log *log_from_idx(u32 idx) { return NULL; }
-static u32 log_next(u32 idx) { return 0; }
-static ssize_t msg_print_ext_header(char *buf, size_t size,
-				    struct printk_log *msg,
-				    u64 seq) { return 0; }
+static unsigned long console_dropped;
+
+static size_t record_print_text(const struct printk_record *r,
+				bool syslog, bool time)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+static ssize_t info_print_ext_header(char *buf, size_t size,
+				     struct printk_info *info)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
 static ssize_t msg_print_ext_body(char *buf, size_t size,
-				  char *dict, size_t dict_len,
-				  char *text, size_t text_len) { return 0; }
+				  char *text, size_t text_len,
+				  struct dev_printk_info *dev_info) { return 0; }
 static void console_lock_spinning_enable(void) { }
 static int console_lock_spinning_disable_and_check(void) { return 0; }
 static void call_console_drivers(const char *ext_text, size_t ext_len,
 				 const char *text, size_t len) {}
-static size_t msg_print_text(const struct printk_log *msg, bool syslog,
-			     bool time, char *buf, size_t size) { return 0; }
 static bool suppress_message_printing(int level) { return false; }
 
 #endif /* CONFIG_PRINTK */
@@ -2398,12 +2397,16 @@
 	static char text[LOG_LINE_MAX + PREFIX_MAX];
 	unsigned long flags;
 	bool do_cond_resched, retry;
+	struct printk_info info;
+	struct printk_record r;
 
 	if (console_suspended) {
 		up_console_sem();
 		return;
 	}
 
+	prb_rec_init_rd(&r, &info, text, sizeof(text));
+
 	/*
 	 * Console drivers are called with interrupts disabled, so
 	 * @console_may_schedule should be cleared before; however, we may
@@ -2416,7 +2419,7 @@
 	 *
 	 * console_trylock() is not able to detect the preemptive
 	 * context reliably. Therefore the value must be stored before
-	 * and cleared after the the "again" goto label.
+	 * and cleared after the "again" goto label.
 	 */
 	do_cond_resched = console_may_schedule;
 again:
@@ -2434,35 +2437,26 @@
 	}
 
 	for (;;) {
-		struct printk_log *msg;
 		size_t ext_len = 0;
 		size_t len;
 
 		printk_safe_enter_irqsave(flags);
 		raw_spin_lock(&logbuf_lock);
-		if (console_seq < log_first_seq) {
-			len = snprintf(text, sizeof(text),
-				       "** %llu printk messages dropped **\n",
-				       log_first_seq - console_seq);
-
-			/* messages are gone, move to first one */
-			console_seq = log_first_seq;
-			console_idx = log_first_idx;
-		} else {
-			len = 0;
-		}
 skip:
-		if (console_seq == log_next_seq)
+		if (!prb_read_valid(prb, console_seq, &r))
 			break;
 
-		msg = log_from_idx(console_idx);
-		if (suppress_message_printing(msg->level)) {
+		if (console_seq != r.info->seq) {
+			console_dropped += r.info->seq - console_seq;
+			console_seq = r.info->seq;
+		}
+
+		if (suppress_message_printing(r.info->level)) {
 			/*
 			 * Skip record we have buffered and already printed
 			 * directly to the console when we received it, and
 			 * record that has level above the console loglevel.
 			 */
-			console_idx = log_next(console_idx);
 			console_seq++;
 			goto skip;
 		}
@@ -2473,19 +2467,23 @@
 			exclusive_console = NULL;
 		}
 
-		len += msg_print_text(msg,
-				console_msg_format & MSG_FORMAT_SYSLOG,
-				printk_time, text + len, sizeof(text) - len);
+		/*
+		 * Handle extended console text first because later
+		 * record_print_text() will modify the record buffer in-place.
+		 */
 		if (nr_ext_console_drivers) {
-			ext_len = msg_print_ext_header(ext_text,
+			ext_len = info_print_ext_header(ext_text,
 						sizeof(ext_text),
-						msg, console_seq);
+						r.info);
 			ext_len += msg_print_ext_body(ext_text + ext_len,
 						sizeof(ext_text) - ext_len,
-						log_dict(msg), msg->dict_len,
-						log_text(msg), msg->text_len);
+						&r.text_buf[0],
+						r.info->text_len,
+						&r.info->dev_info);
 		}
-		console_idx = log_next(console_idx);
+		len = record_print_text(&r,
+				console_msg_format & MSG_FORMAT_SYSLOG,
+				printk_time);
 		console_seq++;
 		raw_spin_unlock(&logbuf_lock);
 
@@ -2525,7 +2523,7 @@
 	 * flush, no worries.
 	 */
 	raw_spin_lock(&logbuf_lock);
-	retry = console_seq != log_next_seq;
+	retry = prb_read_valid(prb, console_seq, NULL);
 	raw_spin_unlock(&logbuf_lock);
 	printk_safe_exit_irqrestore(flags);
 
@@ -2594,8 +2592,7 @@
 		unsigned long flags;
 
 		logbuf_lock_irqsave(flags);
-		console_seq = log_first_seq;
-		console_idx = log_first_idx;
+		console_seq = prb_first_valid_seq(prb);
 		logbuf_unlock_irqrestore(flags);
 	}
 	console_unlock();
@@ -2838,7 +2835,6 @@
 		exclusive_console = newcon;
 		exclusive_console_stop_seq = console_seq;
 		console_seq = syslog_seq;
-		console_idx = syslog_idx;
 		logbuf_unlock_irqrestore(flags);
 	}
 	console_unlock();
@@ -3062,7 +3058,7 @@
 {
 	int r;
 
-	r = vprintk_emit(0, LOGLEVEL_SCHED, NULL, 0, fmt, args);
+	r = vprintk_emit(0, LOGLEVEL_SCHED, NULL, fmt, args);
 	defer_console_output();
 
 	return r;
@@ -3227,9 +3223,7 @@
 
 		logbuf_lock_irqsave(flags);
 		dumper->cur_seq = clear_seq;
-		dumper->cur_idx = clear_idx;
-		dumper->next_seq = log_next_seq;
-		dumper->next_idx = log_next_idx;
+		dumper->next_seq = prb_next_seq(prb);
 		logbuf_unlock_irqrestore(flags);
 
 		/* invoke dumper which will iterate over records */
@@ -3263,28 +3257,33 @@
 bool kmsg_dump_get_line_nolock(struct kmsg_dumper *dumper, bool syslog,
 			       char *line, size_t size, size_t *len)
 {
-	struct printk_log *msg;
+	struct printk_info info;
+	unsigned int line_count;
+	struct printk_record r;
 	size_t l = 0;
 	bool ret = false;
 
+	prb_rec_init_rd(&r, &info, line, size);
+
 	if (!dumper->active)
 		goto out;
 
-	if (dumper->cur_seq < log_first_seq) {
-		/* messages are gone, move to first available one */
-		dumper->cur_seq = log_first_seq;
-		dumper->cur_idx = log_first_idx;
+	/* Read text or count text lines? */
+	if (line) {
+		if (!prb_read_valid(prb, dumper->cur_seq, &r))
+			goto out;
+		l = record_print_text(&r, syslog, printk_time);
+	} else {
+		if (!prb_read_valid_info(prb, dumper->cur_seq,
+					 &info, &line_count)) {
+			goto out;
+		}
+		l = get_record_print_text_size(&info, line_count, syslog,
+					       printk_time);
+
 	}
 
-	/* last entry */
-	if (dumper->cur_seq >= log_next_seq)
-		goto out;
-
-	msg = log_from_idx(dumper->cur_idx);
-	l = msg_print_text(msg, syslog, printk_time, line, size);
-
-	dumper->cur_idx = log_next(dumper->cur_idx);
-	dumper->cur_seq++;
+	dumper->cur_seq = r.info->seq + 1;
 	ret = true;
 out:
 	if (len)
@@ -3332,7 +3331,7 @@
  * @len: length of line placed into buffer
  *
  * Start at the end of the kmsg buffer and fill the provided buffer
- * with as many of the the *youngest* kmsg records that fit into it.
+ * with as many of the *youngest* kmsg records that fit into it.
  * If the buffer is large enough, all available kmsg records will be
  * copied with a single call.
  *
@@ -3345,23 +3344,25 @@
 bool kmsg_dump_get_buffer(struct kmsg_dumper *dumper, bool syslog,
 			  char *buf, size_t size, size_t *len)
 {
+	struct printk_info info;
+	unsigned int line_count;
+	struct printk_record r;
 	unsigned long flags;
 	u64 seq;
-	u32 idx;
 	u64 next_seq;
-	u32 next_idx;
 	size_t l = 0;
 	bool ret = false;
 	bool time = printk_time;
 
-	if (!dumper->active)
+	prb_rec_init_rd(&r, &info, buf, size);
+
+	if (!dumper->active || !buf || !size)
 		goto out;
 
 	logbuf_lock_irqsave(flags);
-	if (dumper->cur_seq < log_first_seq) {
+	if (dumper->cur_seq < prb_first_valid_seq(prb)) {
 		/* messages are gone, move to first available one */
-		dumper->cur_seq = log_first_seq;
-		dumper->cur_idx = log_first_idx;
+		dumper->cur_seq = prb_first_valid_seq(prb);
 	}
 
 	/* last entry */
@@ -3372,41 +3373,41 @@
 
 	/* calculate length of entire buffer */
 	seq = dumper->cur_seq;
-	idx = dumper->cur_idx;
-	while (seq < dumper->next_seq) {
-		struct printk_log *msg = log_from_idx(idx);
-
-		l += msg_print_text(msg, true, time, NULL, 0);
-		idx = log_next(idx);
-		seq++;
+	while (prb_read_valid_info(prb, seq, &info, &line_count)) {
+		if (r.info->seq >= dumper->next_seq)
+			break;
+		l += get_record_print_text_size(&info, line_count, true, time);
+		seq = r.info->seq + 1;
 	}
 
 	/* move first record forward until length fits into the buffer */
 	seq = dumper->cur_seq;
-	idx = dumper->cur_idx;
-	while (l >= size && seq < dumper->next_seq) {
-		struct printk_log *msg = log_from_idx(idx);
-
-		l -= msg_print_text(msg, true, time, NULL, 0);
-		idx = log_next(idx);
-		seq++;
+	while (l >= size && prb_read_valid_info(prb, seq,
+						&info, &line_count)) {
+		if (r.info->seq >= dumper->next_seq)
+			break;
+		l -= get_record_print_text_size(&info, line_count, true, time);
+		seq = r.info->seq + 1;
 	}
 
 	/* last message in next interation */
 	next_seq = seq;
-	next_idx = idx;
 
+	/* actually read text into the buffer now */
 	l = 0;
-	while (seq < dumper->next_seq) {
-		struct printk_log *msg = log_from_idx(idx);
+	while (prb_read_valid(prb, seq, &r)) {
+		if (r.info->seq >= dumper->next_seq)
+			break;
 
-		l += msg_print_text(msg, syslog, time, buf + l, size - l);
-		idx = log_next(idx);
-		seq++;
+		l += record_print_text(&r, syslog, time);
+
+		/* adjust record to store to remaining buffer space */
+		prb_rec_init_rd(&r, &info, buf + l, size - l);
+
+		seq = r.info->seq + 1;
 	}
 
 	dumper->next_seq = next_seq;
-	dumper->next_idx = next_idx;
 	ret = true;
 	logbuf_unlock_irqrestore(flags);
 out:
@@ -3429,9 +3430,7 @@
 void kmsg_dump_rewind_nolock(struct kmsg_dumper *dumper)
 {
 	dumper->cur_seq = clear_seq;
-	dumper->cur_idx = clear_idx;
-	dumper->next_seq = log_next_seq;
-	dumper->next_idx = log_next_idx;
+	dumper->next_seq = prb_next_seq(prb);
 }
 
 /**
diff --git a/kernel/printk/printk_ringbuffer.c b/kernel/printk/printk_ringbuffer.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2493348
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/printk/printk_ringbuffer.c
@@ -0,0 +1,2083 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/irqflags.h>
+#include <linux/string.h>
+#include <linux/errno.h>
+#include <linux/bug.h>
+#include "printk_ringbuffer.h"
+
+/**
+ * DOC: printk_ringbuffer overview
+ *
+ * Data Structure
+ * --------------
+ * The printk_ringbuffer is made up of 3 internal ringbuffers:
+ *
+ *   desc_ring
+ *     A ring of descriptors and their meta data (such as sequence number,
+ *     timestamp, loglevel, etc.) as well as internal state information about
+ *     the record and logical positions specifying where in the other
+ *     ringbuffer the text strings are located.
+ *
+ *   text_data_ring
+ *     A ring of data blocks. A data block consists of an unsigned long
+ *     integer (ID) that maps to a desc_ring index followed by the text
+ *     string of the record.
+ *
+ * The internal state information of a descriptor is the key element to allow
+ * readers and writers to locklessly synchronize access to the data.
+ *
+ * Implementation
+ * --------------
+ *
+ * Descriptor Ring
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ * The descriptor ring is an array of descriptors. A descriptor contains
+ * essential meta data to track the data of a printk record using
+ * blk_lpos structs pointing to associated text data blocks (see
+ * "Data Rings" below). Each descriptor is assigned an ID that maps
+ * directly to index values of the descriptor array and has a state. The ID
+ * and the state are bitwise combined into a single descriptor field named
+ * @state_var, allowing ID and state to be synchronously and atomically
+ * updated.
+ *
+ * Descriptors have four states:
+ *
+ *   reserved
+ *     A writer is modifying the record.
+ *
+ *   committed
+ *     The record and all its data are written. A writer can reopen the
+ *     descriptor (transitioning it back to reserved), but in the committed
+ *     state the data is consistent.
+ *
+ *   finalized
+ *     The record and all its data are complete and available for reading. A
+ *     writer cannot reopen the descriptor.
+ *
+ *   reusable
+ *     The record exists, but its text and/or meta data may no longer be
+ *     available.
+ *
+ * Querying the @state_var of a record requires providing the ID of the
+ * descriptor to query. This can yield a possible fifth (pseudo) state:
+ *
+ *   miss
+ *     The descriptor being queried has an unexpected ID.
+ *
+ * The descriptor ring has a @tail_id that contains the ID of the oldest
+ * descriptor and @head_id that contains the ID of the newest descriptor.
+ *
+ * When a new descriptor should be created (and the ring is full), the tail
+ * descriptor is invalidated by first transitioning to the reusable state and
+ * then invalidating all tail data blocks up to and including the data blocks
+ * associated with the tail descriptor (for the text ring). Then
+ * @tail_id is advanced, followed by advancing @head_id. And finally the
+ * @state_var of the new descriptor is initialized to the new ID and reserved
+ * state.
+ *
+ * The @tail_id can only be advanced if the new @tail_id would be in the
+ * committed or reusable queried state. This makes it possible that a valid
+ * sequence number of the tail is always available.
+ *
+ * Descriptor Finalization
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ * When a writer calls the commit function prb_commit(), record data is
+ * fully stored and is consistent within the ringbuffer. However, a writer can
+ * reopen that record, claiming exclusive access (as with prb_reserve()), and
+ * modify that record. When finished, the writer must again commit the record.
+ *
+ * In order for a record to be made available to readers (and also become
+ * recyclable for writers), it must be finalized. A finalized record cannot be
+ * reopened and can never become "unfinalized". Record finalization can occur
+ * in three different scenarios:
+ *
+ *   1) A writer can simultaneously commit and finalize its record by calling
+ *      prb_final_commit() instead of prb_commit().
+ *
+ *   2) When a new record is reserved and the previous record has been
+ *      committed via prb_commit(), that previous record is automatically
+ *      finalized.
+ *
+ *   3) When a record is committed via prb_commit() and a newer record
+ *      already exists, the record being committed is automatically finalized.
+ *
+ * Data Ring
+ * ~~~~~~~~~
+ * The text data ring is a byte array composed of data blocks. Data blocks are
+ * referenced by blk_lpos structs that point to the logical position of the
+ * beginning of a data block and the beginning of the next adjacent data
+ * block. Logical positions are mapped directly to index values of the byte
+ * array ringbuffer.
+ *
+ * Each data block consists of an ID followed by the writer data. The ID is
+ * the identifier of a descriptor that is associated with the data block. A
+ * given data block is considered valid if all of the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ *
+ *   1) The descriptor associated with the data block is in the committed
+ *      or finalized queried state.
+ *
+ *   2) The blk_lpos struct within the descriptor associated with the data
+ *      block references back to the same data block.
+ *
+ *   3) The data block is within the head/tail logical position range.
+ *
+ * If the writer data of a data block would extend beyond the end of the
+ * byte array, only the ID of the data block is stored at the logical
+ * position and the full data block (ID and writer data) is stored at the
+ * beginning of the byte array. The referencing blk_lpos will point to the
+ * ID before the wrap and the next data block will be at the logical
+ * position adjacent the full data block after the wrap.
+ *
+ * Data rings have a @tail_lpos that points to the beginning of the oldest
+ * data block and a @head_lpos that points to the logical position of the
+ * next (not yet existing) data block.
+ *
+ * When a new data block should be created (and the ring is full), tail data
+ * blocks will first be invalidated by putting their associated descriptors
+ * into the reusable state and then pushing the @tail_lpos forward beyond
+ * them. Then the @head_lpos is pushed forward and is associated with a new
+ * descriptor. If a data block is not valid, the @tail_lpos cannot be
+ * advanced beyond it.
+ *
+ * Info Array
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~
+ * The general meta data of printk records are stored in printk_info structs,
+ * stored in an array with the same number of elements as the descriptor ring.
+ * Each info corresponds to the descriptor of the same index in the
+ * descriptor ring. Info validity is confirmed by evaluating the corresponding
+ * descriptor before and after loading the info.
+ *
+ * Usage
+ * -----
+ * Here are some simple examples demonstrating writers and readers. For the
+ * examples a global ringbuffer (test_rb) is available (which is not the
+ * actual ringbuffer used by printk)::
+ *
+ *	DEFINE_PRINTKRB(test_rb, 15, 5);
+ *
+ * This ringbuffer allows up to 32768 records (2 ^ 15) and has a size of
+ * 1 MiB (2 ^ (15 + 5)) for text data.
+ *
+ * Sample writer code::
+ *
+ *	const char *textstr = "message text";
+ *	struct prb_reserved_entry e;
+ *	struct printk_record r;
+ *
+ *	// specify how much to allocate
+ *	prb_rec_init_wr(&r, strlen(textstr) + 1);
+ *
+ *	if (prb_reserve(&e, &test_rb, &r)) {
+ *		snprintf(r.text_buf, r.text_buf_size, "%s", textstr);
+ *
+ *		r.info->text_len = strlen(textstr);
+ *		r.info->ts_nsec = local_clock();
+ *		r.info->caller_id = printk_caller_id();
+ *
+ *		// commit and finalize the record
+ *		prb_final_commit(&e);
+ *	}
+ *
+ * Note that additional writer functions are available to extend a record
+ * after it has been committed but not yet finalized. This can be done as
+ * long as no new records have been reserved and the caller is the same.
+ *
+ * Sample writer code (record extending)::
+ *
+ *		// alternate rest of previous example
+ *
+ *		r.info->text_len = strlen(textstr);
+ *		r.info->ts_nsec = local_clock();
+ *		r.info->caller_id = printk_caller_id();
+ *
+ *		// commit the record (but do not finalize yet)
+ *		prb_commit(&e);
+ *	}
+ *
+ *	...
+ *
+ *	// specify additional 5 bytes text space to extend
+ *	prb_rec_init_wr(&r, 5);
+ *
+ *	// try to extend, but only if it does not exceed 32 bytes
+ *	if (prb_reserve_in_last(&e, &test_rb, &r, printk_caller_id()), 32) {
+ *		snprintf(&r.text_buf[r.info->text_len],
+ *			 r.text_buf_size - r.info->text_len, "hello");
+ *
+ *		r.info->text_len += 5;
+ *
+ *		// commit and finalize the record
+ *		prb_final_commit(&e);
+ *	}
+ *
+ * Sample reader code::
+ *
+ *	struct printk_info info;
+ *	struct printk_record r;
+ *	char text_buf[32];
+ *	u64 seq;
+ *
+ *	prb_rec_init_rd(&r, &info, &text_buf[0], sizeof(text_buf));
+ *
+ *	prb_for_each_record(0, &test_rb, &seq, &r) {
+ *		if (info.seq != seq)
+ *			pr_warn("lost %llu records\n", info.seq - seq);
+ *
+ *		if (info.text_len > r.text_buf_size) {
+ *			pr_warn("record %llu text truncated\n", info.seq);
+ *			text_buf[r.text_buf_size - 1] = 0;
+ *		}
+ *
+ *		pr_info("%llu: %llu: %s\n", info.seq, info.ts_nsec,
+ *			&text_buf[0]);
+ *	}
+ *
+ * Note that additional less convenient reader functions are available to
+ * allow complex record access.
+ *
+ * ABA Issues
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~
+ * To help avoid ABA issues, descriptors are referenced by IDs (array index
+ * values combined with tagged bits counting array wraps) and data blocks are
+ * referenced by logical positions (array index values combined with tagged
+ * bits counting array wraps). However, on 32-bit systems the number of
+ * tagged bits is relatively small such that an ABA incident is (at least
+ * theoretically) possible. For example, if 4 million maximally sized (1KiB)
+ * printk messages were to occur in NMI context on a 32-bit system, the
+ * interrupted context would not be able to recognize that the 32-bit integer
+ * completely wrapped and thus represents a different data block than the one
+ * the interrupted context expects.
+ *
+ * To help combat this possibility, additional state checking is performed
+ * (such as using cmpxchg() even though set() would suffice). These extra
+ * checks are commented as such and will hopefully catch any ABA issue that
+ * a 32-bit system might experience.
+ *
+ * Memory Barriers
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ * Multiple memory barriers are used. To simplify proving correctness and
+ * generating litmus tests, lines of code related to memory barriers
+ * (loads, stores, and the associated memory barriers) are labeled::
+ *
+ *	LMM(function:letter)
+ *
+ * Comments reference the labels using only the "function:letter" part.
+ *
+ * The memory barrier pairs and their ordering are:
+ *
+ *   desc_reserve:D / desc_reserve:B
+ *     push descriptor tail (id), then push descriptor head (id)
+ *
+ *   desc_reserve:D / data_push_tail:B
+ *     push data tail (lpos), then set new descriptor reserved (state)
+ *
+ *   desc_reserve:D / desc_push_tail:C
+ *     push descriptor tail (id), then set new descriptor reserved (state)
+ *
+ *   desc_reserve:D / prb_first_seq:C
+ *     push descriptor tail (id), then set new descriptor reserved (state)
+ *
+ *   desc_reserve:F / desc_read:D
+ *     set new descriptor id and reserved (state), then allow writer changes
+ *
+ *   data_alloc:A (or data_realloc:A) / desc_read:D
+ *     set old descriptor reusable (state), then modify new data block area
+ *
+ *   data_alloc:A (or data_realloc:A) / data_push_tail:B
+ *     push data tail (lpos), then modify new data block area
+ *
+ *   _prb_commit:B / desc_read:B
+ *     store writer changes, then set new descriptor committed (state)
+ *
+ *   desc_reopen_last:A / _prb_commit:B
+ *     set descriptor reserved (state), then read descriptor data
+ *
+ *   _prb_commit:B / desc_reserve:D
+ *     set new descriptor committed (state), then check descriptor head (id)
+ *
+ *   data_push_tail:D / data_push_tail:A
+ *     set descriptor reusable (state), then push data tail (lpos)
+ *
+ *   desc_push_tail:B / desc_reserve:D
+ *     set descriptor reusable (state), then push descriptor tail (id)
+ */
+
+#define DATA_SIZE(data_ring)		_DATA_SIZE((data_ring)->size_bits)
+#define DATA_SIZE_MASK(data_ring)	(DATA_SIZE(data_ring) - 1)
+
+#define DESCS_COUNT(desc_ring)		_DESCS_COUNT((desc_ring)->count_bits)
+#define DESCS_COUNT_MASK(desc_ring)	(DESCS_COUNT(desc_ring) - 1)
+
+/* Determine the data array index from a logical position. */
+#define DATA_INDEX(data_ring, lpos)	((lpos) & DATA_SIZE_MASK(data_ring))
+
+/* Determine the desc array index from an ID or sequence number. */
+#define DESC_INDEX(desc_ring, n)	((n) & DESCS_COUNT_MASK(desc_ring))
+
+/* Determine how many times the data array has wrapped. */
+#define DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, lpos)	((lpos) >> (data_ring)->size_bits)
+
+/* Determine if a logical position refers to a data-less block. */
+#define LPOS_DATALESS(lpos)		((lpos) & 1UL)
+#define BLK_DATALESS(blk)		(LPOS_DATALESS((blk)->begin) && \
+					 LPOS_DATALESS((blk)->next))
+
+/* Get the logical position at index 0 of the current wrap. */
+#define DATA_THIS_WRAP_START_LPOS(data_ring, lpos) \
+((lpos) & ~DATA_SIZE_MASK(data_ring))
+
+/* Get the ID for the same index of the previous wrap as the given ID. */
+#define DESC_ID_PREV_WRAP(desc_ring, id) \
+DESC_ID((id) - DESCS_COUNT(desc_ring))
+
+/*
+ * A data block: mapped directly to the beginning of the data block area
+ * specified as a logical position within the data ring.
+ *
+ * @id:   the ID of the associated descriptor
+ * @data: the writer data
+ *
+ * Note that the size of a data block is only known by its associated
+ * descriptor.
+ */
+struct prb_data_block {
+	unsigned long	id;
+	char		data[0];
+};
+
+/*
+ * Return the descriptor associated with @n. @n can be either a
+ * descriptor ID or a sequence number.
+ */
+static struct prb_desc *to_desc(struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring, u64 n)
+{
+	return &desc_ring->descs[DESC_INDEX(desc_ring, n)];
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return the printk_info associated with @n. @n can be either a
+ * descriptor ID or a sequence number.
+ */
+static struct printk_info *to_info(struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring, u64 n)
+{
+	return &desc_ring->infos[DESC_INDEX(desc_ring, n)];
+}
+
+static struct prb_data_block *to_block(struct prb_data_ring *data_ring,
+				       unsigned long begin_lpos)
+{
+	return (void *)&data_ring->data[DATA_INDEX(data_ring, begin_lpos)];
+}
+
+/*
+ * Increase the data size to account for data block meta data plus any
+ * padding so that the adjacent data block is aligned on the ID size.
+ */
+static unsigned int to_blk_size(unsigned int size)
+{
+	struct prb_data_block *db = NULL;
+
+	size += sizeof(*db);
+	size = ALIGN(size, sizeof(db->id));
+	return size;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Sanity checker for reserve size. The ringbuffer code assumes that a data
+ * block does not exceed the maximum possible size that could fit within the
+ * ringbuffer. This function provides that basic size check so that the
+ * assumption is safe.
+ */
+static bool data_check_size(struct prb_data_ring *data_ring, unsigned int size)
+{
+	struct prb_data_block *db = NULL;
+
+	if (size == 0)
+		return true;
+
+	/*
+	 * Ensure the alignment padded size could possibly fit in the data
+	 * array. The largest possible data block must still leave room for
+	 * at least the ID of the next block.
+	 */
+	size = to_blk_size(size);
+	if (size > DATA_SIZE(data_ring) - sizeof(db->id))
+		return false;
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+/* Query the state of a descriptor. */
+static enum desc_state get_desc_state(unsigned long id,
+				      unsigned long state_val)
+{
+	if (id != DESC_ID(state_val))
+		return desc_miss;
+
+	return DESC_STATE(state_val);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Get a copy of a specified descriptor and return its queried state. If the
+ * descriptor is in an inconsistent state (miss or reserved), the caller can
+ * only expect the descriptor's @state_var field to be valid.
+ *
+ * The sequence number and caller_id can be optionally retrieved. Like all
+ * non-state_var data, they are only valid if the descriptor is in a
+ * consistent state.
+ */
+static enum desc_state desc_read(struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring,
+				 unsigned long id, struct prb_desc *desc_out,
+				 u64 *seq_out, u32 *caller_id_out)
+{
+	struct printk_info *info = to_info(desc_ring, id);
+	struct prb_desc *desc = to_desc(desc_ring, id);
+	atomic_long_t *state_var = &desc->state_var;
+	enum desc_state d_state;
+	unsigned long state_val;
+
+	/* Check the descriptor state. */
+	state_val = atomic_long_read(state_var); /* LMM(desc_read:A) */
+	d_state = get_desc_state(id, state_val);
+	if (d_state == desc_miss || d_state == desc_reserved) {
+		/*
+		 * The descriptor is in an inconsistent state. Set at least
+		 * @state_var so that the caller can see the details of
+		 * the inconsistent state.
+		 */
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Guarantee the state is loaded before copying the descriptor
+	 * content. This avoids copying obsolete descriptor content that might
+	 * not apply to the descriptor state. This pairs with _prb_commit:B.
+	 *
+	 * Memory barrier involvement:
+	 *
+	 * If desc_read:A reads from _prb_commit:B, then desc_read:C reads
+	 * from _prb_commit:A.
+	 *
+	 * Relies on:
+	 *
+	 * WMB from _prb_commit:A to _prb_commit:B
+	 *    matching
+	 * RMB from desc_read:A to desc_read:C
+	 */
+	smp_rmb(); /* LMM(desc_read:B) */
+
+	/*
+	 * Copy the descriptor data. The data is not valid until the
+	 * state has been re-checked. A memcpy() for all of @desc
+	 * cannot be used because of the atomic_t @state_var field.
+	 */
+	memcpy(&desc_out->text_blk_lpos, &desc->text_blk_lpos,
+	       sizeof(desc_out->text_blk_lpos)); /* LMM(desc_read:C) */
+	if (seq_out)
+		*seq_out = info->seq; /* also part of desc_read:C */
+	if (caller_id_out)
+		*caller_id_out = info->caller_id; /* also part of desc_read:C */
+
+	/*
+	 * 1. Guarantee the descriptor content is loaded before re-checking
+	 *    the state. This avoids reading an obsolete descriptor state
+	 *    that may not apply to the copied content. This pairs with
+	 *    desc_reserve:F.
+	 *
+	 *    Memory barrier involvement:
+	 *
+	 *    If desc_read:C reads from desc_reserve:G, then desc_read:E
+	 *    reads from desc_reserve:F.
+	 *
+	 *    Relies on:
+	 *
+	 *    WMB from desc_reserve:F to desc_reserve:G
+	 *       matching
+	 *    RMB from desc_read:C to desc_read:E
+	 *
+	 * 2. Guarantee the record data is loaded before re-checking the
+	 *    state. This avoids reading an obsolete descriptor state that may
+	 *    not apply to the copied data. This pairs with data_alloc:A and
+	 *    data_realloc:A.
+	 *
+	 *    Memory barrier involvement:
+	 *
+	 *    If copy_data:A reads from data_alloc:B, then desc_read:E
+	 *    reads from desc_make_reusable:A.
+	 *
+	 *    Relies on:
+	 *
+	 *    MB from desc_make_reusable:A to data_alloc:B
+	 *       matching
+	 *    RMB from desc_read:C to desc_read:E
+	 *
+	 *    Note: desc_make_reusable:A and data_alloc:B can be different
+	 *          CPUs. However, the data_alloc:B CPU (which performs the
+	 *          full memory barrier) must have previously seen
+	 *          desc_make_reusable:A.
+	 */
+	smp_rmb(); /* LMM(desc_read:D) */
+
+	/*
+	 * The data has been copied. Return the current descriptor state,
+	 * which may have changed since the load above.
+	 */
+	state_val = atomic_long_read(state_var); /* LMM(desc_read:E) */
+	d_state = get_desc_state(id, state_val);
+out:
+	atomic_long_set(&desc_out->state_var, state_val);
+	return d_state;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Take a specified descriptor out of the finalized state by attempting
+ * the transition from finalized to reusable. Either this context or some
+ * other context will have been successful.
+ */
+static void desc_make_reusable(struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring,
+			       unsigned long id)
+{
+	unsigned long val_finalized = DESC_SV(id, desc_finalized);
+	unsigned long val_reusable = DESC_SV(id, desc_reusable);
+	struct prb_desc *desc = to_desc(desc_ring, id);
+	atomic_long_t *state_var = &desc->state_var;
+
+	atomic_long_cmpxchg_relaxed(state_var, val_finalized,
+				    val_reusable); /* LMM(desc_make_reusable:A) */
+}
+
+/*
+ * Given the text data ring, put the associated descriptor of each
+ * data block from @lpos_begin until @lpos_end into the reusable state.
+ *
+ * If there is any problem making the associated descriptor reusable, either
+ * the descriptor has not yet been finalized or another writer context has
+ * already pushed the tail lpos past the problematic data block. Regardless,
+ * on error the caller can re-load the tail lpos to determine the situation.
+ */
+static bool data_make_reusable(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+			       struct prb_data_ring *data_ring,
+			       unsigned long lpos_begin,
+			       unsigned long lpos_end,
+			       unsigned long *lpos_out)
+{
+	struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring = &rb->desc_ring;
+	struct prb_data_block *blk;
+	enum desc_state d_state;
+	struct prb_desc desc;
+	struct prb_data_blk_lpos *blk_lpos = &desc.text_blk_lpos;
+	unsigned long id;
+
+	/* Loop until @lpos_begin has advanced to or beyond @lpos_end. */
+	while ((lpos_end - lpos_begin) - 1 < DATA_SIZE(data_ring)) {
+		blk = to_block(data_ring, lpos_begin);
+
+		/*
+		 * Load the block ID from the data block. This is a data race
+		 * against a writer that may have newly reserved this data
+		 * area. If the loaded value matches a valid descriptor ID,
+		 * the blk_lpos of that descriptor will be checked to make
+		 * sure it points back to this data block. If the check fails,
+		 * the data area has been recycled by another writer.
+		 */
+		id = blk->id; /* LMM(data_make_reusable:A) */
+
+		d_state = desc_read(desc_ring, id, &desc,
+				    NULL, NULL); /* LMM(data_make_reusable:B) */
+
+		switch (d_state) {
+		case desc_miss:
+		case desc_reserved:
+		case desc_committed:
+			return false;
+		case desc_finalized:
+			/*
+			 * This data block is invalid if the descriptor
+			 * does not point back to it.
+			 */
+			if (blk_lpos->begin != lpos_begin)
+				return false;
+			desc_make_reusable(desc_ring, id);
+			break;
+		case desc_reusable:
+			/*
+			 * This data block is invalid if the descriptor
+			 * does not point back to it.
+			 */
+			if (blk_lpos->begin != lpos_begin)
+				return false;
+			break;
+		}
+
+		/* Advance @lpos_begin to the next data block. */
+		lpos_begin = blk_lpos->next;
+	}
+
+	*lpos_out = lpos_begin;
+	return true;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Advance the data ring tail to at least @lpos. This function puts
+ * descriptors into the reusable state if the tail is pushed beyond
+ * their associated data block.
+ */
+static bool data_push_tail(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+			   struct prb_data_ring *data_ring,
+			   unsigned long lpos)
+{
+	unsigned long tail_lpos_new;
+	unsigned long tail_lpos;
+	unsigned long next_lpos;
+
+	/* If @lpos is from a data-less block, there is nothing to do. */
+	if (LPOS_DATALESS(lpos))
+		return true;
+
+	/*
+	 * Any descriptor states that have transitioned to reusable due to the
+	 * data tail being pushed to this loaded value will be visible to this
+	 * CPU. This pairs with data_push_tail:D.
+	 *
+	 * Memory barrier involvement:
+	 *
+	 * If data_push_tail:A reads from data_push_tail:D, then this CPU can
+	 * see desc_make_reusable:A.
+	 *
+	 * Relies on:
+	 *
+	 * MB from desc_make_reusable:A to data_push_tail:D
+	 *    matches
+	 * READFROM from data_push_tail:D to data_push_tail:A
+	 *    thus
+	 * READFROM from desc_make_reusable:A to this CPU
+	 */
+	tail_lpos = atomic_long_read(&data_ring->tail_lpos); /* LMM(data_push_tail:A) */
+
+	/*
+	 * Loop until the tail lpos is at or beyond @lpos. This condition
+	 * may already be satisfied, resulting in no full memory barrier
+	 * from data_push_tail:D being performed. However, since this CPU
+	 * sees the new tail lpos, any descriptor states that transitioned to
+	 * the reusable state must already be visible.
+	 */
+	while ((lpos - tail_lpos) - 1 < DATA_SIZE(data_ring)) {
+		/*
+		 * Make all descriptors reusable that are associated with
+		 * data blocks before @lpos.
+		 */
+		if (!data_make_reusable(rb, data_ring, tail_lpos, lpos,
+					&next_lpos)) {
+			/*
+			 * 1. Guarantee the block ID loaded in
+			 *    data_make_reusable() is performed before
+			 *    reloading the tail lpos. The failed
+			 *    data_make_reusable() may be due to a newly
+			 *    recycled data area causing the tail lpos to
+			 *    have been previously pushed. This pairs with
+			 *    data_alloc:A and data_realloc:A.
+			 *
+			 *    Memory barrier involvement:
+			 *
+			 *    If data_make_reusable:A reads from data_alloc:B,
+			 *    then data_push_tail:C reads from
+			 *    data_push_tail:D.
+			 *
+			 *    Relies on:
+			 *
+			 *    MB from data_push_tail:D to data_alloc:B
+			 *       matching
+			 *    RMB from data_make_reusable:A to
+			 *    data_push_tail:C
+			 *
+			 *    Note: data_push_tail:D and data_alloc:B can be
+			 *          different CPUs. However, the data_alloc:B
+			 *          CPU (which performs the full memory
+			 *          barrier) must have previously seen
+			 *          data_push_tail:D.
+			 *
+			 * 2. Guarantee the descriptor state loaded in
+			 *    data_make_reusable() is performed before
+			 *    reloading the tail lpos. The failed
+			 *    data_make_reusable() may be due to a newly
+			 *    recycled descriptor causing the tail lpos to
+			 *    have been previously pushed. This pairs with
+			 *    desc_reserve:D.
+			 *
+			 *    Memory barrier involvement:
+			 *
+			 *    If data_make_reusable:B reads from
+			 *    desc_reserve:F, then data_push_tail:C reads
+			 *    from data_push_tail:D.
+			 *
+			 *    Relies on:
+			 *
+			 *    MB from data_push_tail:D to desc_reserve:F
+			 *       matching
+			 *    RMB from data_make_reusable:B to
+			 *    data_push_tail:C
+			 *
+			 *    Note: data_push_tail:D and desc_reserve:F can
+			 *          be different CPUs. However, the
+			 *          desc_reserve:F CPU (which performs the
+			 *          full memory barrier) must have previously
+			 *          seen data_push_tail:D.
+			 */
+			smp_rmb(); /* LMM(data_push_tail:B) */
+
+			tail_lpos_new = atomic_long_read(&data_ring->tail_lpos
+							); /* LMM(data_push_tail:C) */
+			if (tail_lpos_new == tail_lpos)
+				return false;
+
+			/* Another CPU pushed the tail. Try again. */
+			tail_lpos = tail_lpos_new;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * Guarantee any descriptor states that have transitioned to
+		 * reusable are stored before pushing the tail lpos. A full
+		 * memory barrier is needed since other CPUs may have made
+		 * the descriptor states reusable. This pairs with
+		 * data_push_tail:A.
+		 */
+		if (atomic_long_try_cmpxchg(&data_ring->tail_lpos, &tail_lpos,
+					    next_lpos)) { /* LMM(data_push_tail:D) */
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Advance the desc ring tail. This function advances the tail by one
+ * descriptor, thus invalidating the oldest descriptor. Before advancing
+ * the tail, the tail descriptor is made reusable and all data blocks up to
+ * and including the descriptor's data block are invalidated (i.e. the data
+ * ring tail is pushed past the data block of the descriptor being made
+ * reusable).
+ */
+static bool desc_push_tail(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+			   unsigned long tail_id)
+{
+	struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring = &rb->desc_ring;
+	enum desc_state d_state;
+	struct prb_desc desc;
+
+	d_state = desc_read(desc_ring, tail_id, &desc, NULL, NULL);
+
+	switch (d_state) {
+	case desc_miss:
+		/*
+		 * If the ID is exactly 1 wrap behind the expected, it is
+		 * in the process of being reserved by another writer and
+		 * must be considered reserved.
+		 */
+		if (DESC_ID(atomic_long_read(&desc.state_var)) ==
+		    DESC_ID_PREV_WRAP(desc_ring, tail_id)) {
+			return false;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * The ID has changed. Another writer must have pushed the
+		 * tail and recycled the descriptor already. Success is
+		 * returned because the caller is only interested in the
+		 * specified tail being pushed, which it was.
+		 */
+		return true;
+	case desc_reserved:
+	case desc_committed:
+		return false;
+	case desc_finalized:
+		desc_make_reusable(desc_ring, tail_id);
+		break;
+	case desc_reusable:
+		break;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Data blocks must be invalidated before their associated
+	 * descriptor can be made available for recycling. Invalidating
+	 * them later is not possible because there is no way to trust
+	 * data blocks once their associated descriptor is gone.
+	 */
+
+	if (!data_push_tail(rb, &rb->text_data_ring, desc.text_blk_lpos.next))
+		return false;
+
+	/*
+	 * Check the next descriptor after @tail_id before pushing the tail
+	 * to it because the tail must always be in a finalized or reusable
+	 * state. The implementation of prb_first_seq() relies on this.
+	 *
+	 * A successful read implies that the next descriptor is less than or
+	 * equal to @head_id so there is no risk of pushing the tail past the
+	 * head.
+	 */
+	d_state = desc_read(desc_ring, DESC_ID(tail_id + 1), &desc,
+			    NULL, NULL); /* LMM(desc_push_tail:A) */
+
+	if (d_state == desc_finalized || d_state == desc_reusable) {
+		/*
+		 * Guarantee any descriptor states that have transitioned to
+		 * reusable are stored before pushing the tail ID. This allows
+		 * verifying the recycled descriptor state. A full memory
+		 * barrier is needed since other CPUs may have made the
+		 * descriptor states reusable. This pairs with desc_reserve:D.
+		 */
+		atomic_long_cmpxchg(&desc_ring->tail_id, tail_id,
+				    DESC_ID(tail_id + 1)); /* LMM(desc_push_tail:B) */
+	} else {
+		/*
+		 * Guarantee the last state load from desc_read() is before
+		 * reloading @tail_id in order to see a new tail ID in the
+		 * case that the descriptor has been recycled. This pairs
+		 * with desc_reserve:D.
+		 *
+		 * Memory barrier involvement:
+		 *
+		 * If desc_push_tail:A reads from desc_reserve:F, then
+		 * desc_push_tail:D reads from desc_push_tail:B.
+		 *
+		 * Relies on:
+		 *
+		 * MB from desc_push_tail:B to desc_reserve:F
+		 *    matching
+		 * RMB from desc_push_tail:A to desc_push_tail:D
+		 *
+		 * Note: desc_push_tail:B and desc_reserve:F can be different
+		 *       CPUs. However, the desc_reserve:F CPU (which performs
+		 *       the full memory barrier) must have previously seen
+		 *       desc_push_tail:B.
+		 */
+		smp_rmb(); /* LMM(desc_push_tail:C) */
+
+		/*
+		 * Re-check the tail ID. The descriptor following @tail_id is
+		 * not in an allowed tail state. But if the tail has since
+		 * been moved by another CPU, then it does not matter.
+		 */
+		if (atomic_long_read(&desc_ring->tail_id) == tail_id) /* LMM(desc_push_tail:D) */
+			return false;
+	}
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+/* Reserve a new descriptor, invalidating the oldest if necessary. */
+static bool desc_reserve(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb, unsigned long *id_out)
+{
+	struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring = &rb->desc_ring;
+	unsigned long prev_state_val;
+	unsigned long id_prev_wrap;
+	struct prb_desc *desc;
+	unsigned long head_id;
+	unsigned long id;
+
+	head_id = atomic_long_read(&desc_ring->head_id); /* LMM(desc_reserve:A) */
+
+	do {
+		desc = to_desc(desc_ring, head_id);
+
+		id = DESC_ID(head_id + 1);
+		id_prev_wrap = DESC_ID_PREV_WRAP(desc_ring, id);
+
+		/*
+		 * Guarantee the head ID is read before reading the tail ID.
+		 * Since the tail ID is updated before the head ID, this
+		 * guarantees that @id_prev_wrap is never ahead of the tail
+		 * ID. This pairs with desc_reserve:D.
+		 *
+		 * Memory barrier involvement:
+		 *
+		 * If desc_reserve:A reads from desc_reserve:D, then
+		 * desc_reserve:C reads from desc_push_tail:B.
+		 *
+		 * Relies on:
+		 *
+		 * MB from desc_push_tail:B to desc_reserve:D
+		 *    matching
+		 * RMB from desc_reserve:A to desc_reserve:C
+		 *
+		 * Note: desc_push_tail:B and desc_reserve:D can be different
+		 *       CPUs. However, the desc_reserve:D CPU (which performs
+		 *       the full memory barrier) must have previously seen
+		 *       desc_push_tail:B.
+		 */
+		smp_rmb(); /* LMM(desc_reserve:B) */
+
+		if (id_prev_wrap == atomic_long_read(&desc_ring->tail_id
+						    )) { /* LMM(desc_reserve:C) */
+			/*
+			 * Make space for the new descriptor by
+			 * advancing the tail.
+			 */
+			if (!desc_push_tail(rb, id_prev_wrap))
+				return false;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * 1. Guarantee the tail ID is read before validating the
+		 *    recycled descriptor state. A read memory barrier is
+		 *    sufficient for this. This pairs with desc_push_tail:B.
+		 *
+		 *    Memory barrier involvement:
+		 *
+		 *    If desc_reserve:C reads from desc_push_tail:B, then
+		 *    desc_reserve:E reads from desc_make_reusable:A.
+		 *
+		 *    Relies on:
+		 *
+		 *    MB from desc_make_reusable:A to desc_push_tail:B
+		 *       matching
+		 *    RMB from desc_reserve:C to desc_reserve:E
+		 *
+		 *    Note: desc_make_reusable:A and desc_push_tail:B can be
+		 *          different CPUs. However, the desc_push_tail:B CPU
+		 *          (which performs the full memory barrier) must have
+		 *          previously seen desc_make_reusable:A.
+		 *
+		 * 2. Guarantee the tail ID is stored before storing the head
+		 *    ID. This pairs with desc_reserve:B.
+		 *
+		 * 3. Guarantee any data ring tail changes are stored before
+		 *    recycling the descriptor. Data ring tail changes can
+		 *    happen via desc_push_tail()->data_push_tail(). A full
+		 *    memory barrier is needed since another CPU may have
+		 *    pushed the data ring tails. This pairs with
+		 *    data_push_tail:B.
+		 *
+		 * 4. Guarantee a new tail ID is stored before recycling the
+		 *    descriptor. A full memory barrier is needed since
+		 *    another CPU may have pushed the tail ID. This pairs
+		 *    with desc_push_tail:C and this also pairs with
+		 *    prb_first_seq:C.
+		 *
+		 * 5. Guarantee the head ID is stored before trying to
+		 *    finalize the previous descriptor. This pairs with
+		 *    _prb_commit:B.
+		 */
+	} while (!atomic_long_try_cmpxchg(&desc_ring->head_id, &head_id,
+					  id)); /* LMM(desc_reserve:D) */
+
+	desc = to_desc(desc_ring, id);
+
+	/*
+	 * If the descriptor has been recycled, verify the old state val.
+	 * See "ABA Issues" about why this verification is performed.
+	 */
+	prev_state_val = atomic_long_read(&desc->state_var); /* LMM(desc_reserve:E) */
+	if (prev_state_val &&
+	    get_desc_state(id_prev_wrap, prev_state_val) != desc_reusable) {
+		WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
+		return false;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Assign the descriptor a new ID and set its state to reserved.
+	 * See "ABA Issues" about why cmpxchg() instead of set() is used.
+	 *
+	 * Guarantee the new descriptor ID and state is stored before making
+	 * any other changes. A write memory barrier is sufficient for this.
+	 * This pairs with desc_read:D.
+	 */
+	if (!atomic_long_try_cmpxchg(&desc->state_var, &prev_state_val,
+			DESC_SV(id, desc_reserved))) { /* LMM(desc_reserve:F) */
+		WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
+		return false;
+	}
+
+	/* Now data in @desc can be modified: LMM(desc_reserve:G) */
+
+	*id_out = id;
+	return true;
+}
+
+/* Determine the end of a data block. */
+static unsigned long get_next_lpos(struct prb_data_ring *data_ring,
+				   unsigned long lpos, unsigned int size)
+{
+	unsigned long begin_lpos;
+	unsigned long next_lpos;
+
+	begin_lpos = lpos;
+	next_lpos = lpos + size;
+
+	/* First check if the data block does not wrap. */
+	if (DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, begin_lpos) == DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, next_lpos))
+		return next_lpos;
+
+	/* Wrapping data blocks store their data at the beginning. */
+	return (DATA_THIS_WRAP_START_LPOS(data_ring, next_lpos) + size);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Allocate a new data block, invalidating the oldest data block(s)
+ * if necessary. This function also associates the data block with
+ * a specified descriptor.
+ */
+static char *data_alloc(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+			struct prb_data_ring *data_ring, unsigned int size,
+			struct prb_data_blk_lpos *blk_lpos, unsigned long id)
+{
+	struct prb_data_block *blk;
+	unsigned long begin_lpos;
+	unsigned long next_lpos;
+
+	if (size == 0) {
+		/* Specify a data-less block. */
+		blk_lpos->begin = NO_LPOS;
+		blk_lpos->next = NO_LPOS;
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	size = to_blk_size(size);
+
+	begin_lpos = atomic_long_read(&data_ring->head_lpos);
+
+	do {
+		next_lpos = get_next_lpos(data_ring, begin_lpos, size);
+
+		if (!data_push_tail(rb, data_ring, next_lpos - DATA_SIZE(data_ring))) {
+			/* Failed to allocate, specify a data-less block. */
+			blk_lpos->begin = FAILED_LPOS;
+			blk_lpos->next = FAILED_LPOS;
+			return NULL;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * 1. Guarantee any descriptor states that have transitioned
+		 *    to reusable are stored before modifying the newly
+		 *    allocated data area. A full memory barrier is needed
+		 *    since other CPUs may have made the descriptor states
+		 *    reusable. See data_push_tail:A about why the reusable
+		 *    states are visible. This pairs with desc_read:D.
+		 *
+		 * 2. Guarantee any updated tail lpos is stored before
+		 *    modifying the newly allocated data area. Another CPU may
+		 *    be in data_make_reusable() and is reading a block ID
+		 *    from this area. data_make_reusable() can handle reading
+		 *    a garbage block ID value, but then it must be able to
+		 *    load a new tail lpos. A full memory barrier is needed
+		 *    since other CPUs may have updated the tail lpos. This
+		 *    pairs with data_push_tail:B.
+		 */
+	} while (!atomic_long_try_cmpxchg(&data_ring->head_lpos, &begin_lpos,
+					  next_lpos)); /* LMM(data_alloc:A) */
+
+	blk = to_block(data_ring, begin_lpos);
+	blk->id = id; /* LMM(data_alloc:B) */
+
+	if (DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, begin_lpos) != DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, next_lpos)) {
+		/* Wrapping data blocks store their data at the beginning. */
+		blk = to_block(data_ring, 0);
+
+		/*
+		 * Store the ID on the wrapped block for consistency.
+		 * The printk_ringbuffer does not actually use it.
+		 */
+		blk->id = id;
+	}
+
+	blk_lpos->begin = begin_lpos;
+	blk_lpos->next = next_lpos;
+
+	return &blk->data[0];
+}
+
+/*
+ * Try to resize an existing data block associated with the descriptor
+ * specified by @id. If the resized data block should become wrapped, it
+ * copies the old data to the new data block. If @size yields a data block
+ * with the same or less size, the data block is left as is.
+ *
+ * Fail if this is not the last allocated data block or if there is not
+ * enough space or it is not possible make enough space.
+ *
+ * Return a pointer to the beginning of the entire data buffer or NULL on
+ * failure.
+ */
+static char *data_realloc(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+			  struct prb_data_ring *data_ring, unsigned int size,
+			  struct prb_data_blk_lpos *blk_lpos, unsigned long id)
+{
+	struct prb_data_block *blk;
+	unsigned long head_lpos;
+	unsigned long next_lpos;
+	bool wrapped;
+
+	/* Reallocation only works if @blk_lpos is the newest data block. */
+	head_lpos = atomic_long_read(&data_ring->head_lpos);
+	if (head_lpos != blk_lpos->next)
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* Keep track if @blk_lpos was a wrapping data block. */
+	wrapped = (DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin) != DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, blk_lpos->next));
+
+	size = to_blk_size(size);
+
+	next_lpos = get_next_lpos(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin, size);
+
+	/* If the data block does not increase, there is nothing to do. */
+	if (head_lpos - next_lpos < DATA_SIZE(data_ring)) {
+		blk = to_block(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin);
+		return &blk->data[0];
+	}
+
+	if (!data_push_tail(rb, data_ring, next_lpos - DATA_SIZE(data_ring)))
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* The memory barrier involvement is the same as data_alloc:A. */
+	if (!atomic_long_try_cmpxchg(&data_ring->head_lpos, &head_lpos,
+				     next_lpos)) { /* LMM(data_realloc:A) */
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	blk = to_block(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin);
+
+	if (DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin) != DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, next_lpos)) {
+		struct prb_data_block *old_blk = blk;
+
+		/* Wrapping data blocks store their data at the beginning. */
+		blk = to_block(data_ring, 0);
+
+		/*
+		 * Store the ID on the wrapped block for consistency.
+		 * The printk_ringbuffer does not actually use it.
+		 */
+		blk->id = id;
+
+		if (!wrapped) {
+			/*
+			 * Since the allocated space is now in the newly
+			 * created wrapping data block, copy the content
+			 * from the old data block.
+			 */
+			memcpy(&blk->data[0], &old_blk->data[0],
+			       (blk_lpos->next - blk_lpos->begin) - sizeof(blk->id));
+		}
+	}
+
+	blk_lpos->next = next_lpos;
+
+	return &blk->data[0];
+}
+
+/* Return the number of bytes used by a data block. */
+static unsigned int space_used(struct prb_data_ring *data_ring,
+			       struct prb_data_blk_lpos *blk_lpos)
+{
+	/* Data-less blocks take no space. */
+	if (BLK_DATALESS(blk_lpos))
+		return 0;
+
+	if (DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin) == DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, blk_lpos->next)) {
+		/* Data block does not wrap. */
+		return (DATA_INDEX(data_ring, blk_lpos->next) -
+			DATA_INDEX(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin));
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * For wrapping data blocks, the trailing (wasted) space is
+	 * also counted.
+	 */
+	return (DATA_INDEX(data_ring, blk_lpos->next) +
+		DATA_SIZE(data_ring) - DATA_INDEX(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin));
+}
+
+/*
+ * Given @blk_lpos, return a pointer to the writer data from the data block
+ * and calculate the size of the data part. A NULL pointer is returned if
+ * @blk_lpos specifies values that could never be legal.
+ *
+ * This function (used by readers) performs strict validation on the lpos
+ * values to possibly detect bugs in the writer code. A WARN_ON_ONCE() is
+ * triggered if an internal error is detected.
+ */
+static const char *get_data(struct prb_data_ring *data_ring,
+			    struct prb_data_blk_lpos *blk_lpos,
+			    unsigned int *data_size)
+{
+	struct prb_data_block *db;
+
+	/* Data-less data block description. */
+	if (BLK_DATALESS(blk_lpos)) {
+		if (blk_lpos->begin == NO_LPOS && blk_lpos->next == NO_LPOS) {
+			*data_size = 0;
+			return "";
+		}
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	/* Regular data block: @begin less than @next and in same wrap. */
+	if (DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin) == DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, blk_lpos->next) &&
+	    blk_lpos->begin < blk_lpos->next) {
+		db = to_block(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin);
+		*data_size = blk_lpos->next - blk_lpos->begin;
+
+	/* Wrapping data block: @begin is one wrap behind @next. */
+	} else if (DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, blk_lpos->begin + DATA_SIZE(data_ring)) ==
+		   DATA_WRAPS(data_ring, blk_lpos->next)) {
+		db = to_block(data_ring, 0);
+		*data_size = DATA_INDEX(data_ring, blk_lpos->next);
+
+	/* Illegal block description. */
+	} else {
+		WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	/* A valid data block will always be aligned to the ID size. */
+	if (WARN_ON_ONCE(blk_lpos->begin != ALIGN(blk_lpos->begin, sizeof(db->id))) ||
+	    WARN_ON_ONCE(blk_lpos->next != ALIGN(blk_lpos->next, sizeof(db->id)))) {
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	/* A valid data block will always have at least an ID. */
+	if (WARN_ON_ONCE(*data_size < sizeof(db->id)))
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* Subtract block ID space from size to reflect data size. */
+	*data_size -= sizeof(db->id);
+
+	return &db->data[0];
+}
+
+/*
+ * Attempt to transition the newest descriptor from committed back to reserved
+ * so that the record can be modified by a writer again. This is only possible
+ * if the descriptor is not yet finalized and the provided @caller_id matches.
+ */
+static struct prb_desc *desc_reopen_last(struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring,
+					 u32 caller_id, unsigned long *id_out)
+{
+	unsigned long prev_state_val;
+	enum desc_state d_state;
+	struct prb_desc desc;
+	struct prb_desc *d;
+	unsigned long id;
+	u32 cid;
+
+	id = atomic_long_read(&desc_ring->head_id);
+
+	/*
+	 * To reduce unnecessarily reopening, first check if the descriptor
+	 * state and caller ID are correct.
+	 */
+	d_state = desc_read(desc_ring, id, &desc, NULL, &cid);
+	if (d_state != desc_committed || cid != caller_id)
+		return NULL;
+
+	d = to_desc(desc_ring, id);
+
+	prev_state_val = DESC_SV(id, desc_committed);
+
+	/*
+	 * Guarantee the reserved state is stored before reading any
+	 * record data. A full memory barrier is needed because @state_var
+	 * modification is followed by reading. This pairs with _prb_commit:B.
+	 *
+	 * Memory barrier involvement:
+	 *
+	 * If desc_reopen_last:A reads from _prb_commit:B, then
+	 * prb_reserve_in_last:A reads from _prb_commit:A.
+	 *
+	 * Relies on:
+	 *
+	 * WMB from _prb_commit:A to _prb_commit:B
+	 *    matching
+	 * MB If desc_reopen_last:A to prb_reserve_in_last:A
+	 */
+	if (!atomic_long_try_cmpxchg(&d->state_var, &prev_state_val,
+			DESC_SV(id, desc_reserved))) { /* LMM(desc_reopen_last:A) */
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	*id_out = id;
+	return d;
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_reserve_in_last() - Re-reserve and extend the space in the ringbuffer
+ *                         used by the newest record.
+ *
+ * @e:         The entry structure to setup.
+ * @rb:        The ringbuffer to re-reserve and extend data in.
+ * @r:         The record structure to allocate buffers for.
+ * @caller_id: The caller ID of the caller (reserving writer).
+ * @max_size:  Fail if the extended size would be greater than this.
+ *
+ * This is the public function available to writers to re-reserve and extend
+ * data.
+ *
+ * The writer specifies the text size to extend (not the new total size) by
+ * setting the @text_buf_size field of @r. To ensure proper initialization
+ * of @r, prb_rec_init_wr() should be used.
+ *
+ * This function will fail if @caller_id does not match the caller ID of the
+ * newest record. In that case the caller must reserve new data using
+ * prb_reserve().
+ *
+ * Context: Any context. Disables local interrupts on success.
+ * Return: true if text data could be extended, otherwise false.
+ *
+ * On success:
+ *
+ *   - @r->text_buf points to the beginning of the entire text buffer.
+ *
+ *   - @r->text_buf_size is set to the new total size of the buffer.
+ *
+ *   - @r->info is not touched so that @r->info->text_len could be used
+ *     to append the text.
+ *
+ *   - prb_record_text_space() can be used on @e to query the new
+ *     actually used space.
+ *
+ * Important: All @r->info fields will already be set with the current values
+ *            for the record. I.e. @r->info->text_len will be less than
+ *            @text_buf_size. Writers can use @r->info->text_len to know
+ *            where concatenation begins and writers should update
+ *            @r->info->text_len after concatenating.
+ */
+bool prb_reserve_in_last(struct prb_reserved_entry *e, struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+			 struct printk_record *r, u32 caller_id, unsigned int max_size)
+{
+	struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring = &rb->desc_ring;
+	struct printk_info *info;
+	unsigned int data_size;
+	struct prb_desc *d;
+	unsigned long id;
+
+	local_irq_save(e->irqflags);
+
+	/* Transition the newest descriptor back to the reserved state. */
+	d = desc_reopen_last(desc_ring, caller_id, &id);
+	if (!d) {
+		local_irq_restore(e->irqflags);
+		goto fail_reopen;
+	}
+
+	/* Now the writer has exclusive access: LMM(prb_reserve_in_last:A) */
+
+	info = to_info(desc_ring, id);
+
+	/*
+	 * Set the @e fields here so that prb_commit() can be used if
+	 * anything fails from now on.
+	 */
+	e->rb = rb;
+	e->id = id;
+
+	/*
+	 * desc_reopen_last() checked the caller_id, but there was no
+	 * exclusive access at that point. The descriptor may have
+	 * changed since then.
+	 */
+	if (caller_id != info->caller_id)
+		goto fail;
+
+	if (BLK_DATALESS(&d->text_blk_lpos)) {
+		if (WARN_ON_ONCE(info->text_len != 0)) {
+			pr_warn_once("wrong text_len value (%hu, expecting 0)\n",
+				     info->text_len);
+			info->text_len = 0;
+		}
+
+		if (!data_check_size(&rb->text_data_ring, r->text_buf_size))
+			goto fail;
+
+		if (r->text_buf_size > max_size)
+			goto fail;
+
+		r->text_buf = data_alloc(rb, &rb->text_data_ring, r->text_buf_size,
+					 &d->text_blk_lpos, id);
+	} else {
+		if (!get_data(&rb->text_data_ring, &d->text_blk_lpos, &data_size))
+			goto fail;
+
+		/*
+		 * Increase the buffer size to include the original size. If
+		 * the meta data (@text_len) is not sane, use the full data
+		 * block size.
+		 */
+		if (WARN_ON_ONCE(info->text_len > data_size)) {
+			pr_warn_once("wrong text_len value (%hu, expecting <=%u)\n",
+				     info->text_len, data_size);
+			info->text_len = data_size;
+		}
+		r->text_buf_size += info->text_len;
+
+		if (!data_check_size(&rb->text_data_ring, r->text_buf_size))
+			goto fail;
+
+		if (r->text_buf_size > max_size)
+			goto fail;
+
+		r->text_buf = data_realloc(rb, &rb->text_data_ring, r->text_buf_size,
+					   &d->text_blk_lpos, id);
+	}
+	if (r->text_buf_size && !r->text_buf)
+		goto fail;
+
+	r->info = info;
+
+	e->text_space = space_used(&rb->text_data_ring, &d->text_blk_lpos);
+
+	return true;
+fail:
+	prb_commit(e);
+	/* prb_commit() re-enabled interrupts. */
+fail_reopen:
+	/* Make it clear to the caller that the re-reserve failed. */
+	memset(r, 0, sizeof(*r));
+	return false;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Attempt to finalize a specified descriptor. If this fails, the descriptor
+ * is either already final or it will finalize itself when the writer commits.
+ */
+static void desc_make_final(struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring, unsigned long id)
+{
+	unsigned long prev_state_val = DESC_SV(id, desc_committed);
+	struct prb_desc *d = to_desc(desc_ring, id);
+
+	atomic_long_cmpxchg_relaxed(&d->state_var, prev_state_val,
+			DESC_SV(id, desc_finalized)); /* LMM(desc_make_final:A) */
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_reserve() - Reserve space in the ringbuffer.
+ *
+ * @e:  The entry structure to setup.
+ * @rb: The ringbuffer to reserve data in.
+ * @r:  The record structure to allocate buffers for.
+ *
+ * This is the public function available to writers to reserve data.
+ *
+ * The writer specifies the text size to reserve by setting the
+ * @text_buf_size field of @r. To ensure proper initialization of @r,
+ * prb_rec_init_wr() should be used.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context. Disables local interrupts on success.
+ * Return: true if at least text data could be allocated, otherwise false.
+ *
+ * On success, the fields @info and @text_buf of @r will be set by this
+ * function and should be filled in by the writer before committing. Also
+ * on success, prb_record_text_space() can be used on @e to query the actual
+ * space used for the text data block.
+ *
+ * Important: @info->text_len needs to be set correctly by the writer in
+ *            order for data to be readable and/or extended. Its value
+ *            is initialized to 0.
+ */
+bool prb_reserve(struct prb_reserved_entry *e, struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+		 struct printk_record *r)
+{
+	struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring = &rb->desc_ring;
+	struct printk_info *info;
+	struct prb_desc *d;
+	unsigned long id;
+	u64 seq;
+
+	if (!data_check_size(&rb->text_data_ring, r->text_buf_size))
+		goto fail;
+
+	/*
+	 * Descriptors in the reserved state act as blockers to all further
+	 * reservations once the desc_ring has fully wrapped. Disable
+	 * interrupts during the reserve/commit window in order to minimize
+	 * the likelihood of this happening.
+	 */
+	local_irq_save(e->irqflags);
+
+	if (!desc_reserve(rb, &id)) {
+		/* Descriptor reservation failures are tracked. */
+		atomic_long_inc(&rb->fail);
+		local_irq_restore(e->irqflags);
+		goto fail;
+	}
+
+	d = to_desc(desc_ring, id);
+	info = to_info(desc_ring, id);
+
+	/*
+	 * All @info fields (except @seq) are cleared and must be filled in
+	 * by the writer. Save @seq before clearing because it is used to
+	 * determine the new sequence number.
+	 */
+	seq = info->seq;
+	memset(info, 0, sizeof(*info));
+
+	/*
+	 * Set the @e fields here so that prb_commit() can be used if
+	 * text data allocation fails.
+	 */
+	e->rb = rb;
+	e->id = id;
+
+	/*
+	 * Initialize the sequence number if it has "never been set".
+	 * Otherwise just increment it by a full wrap.
+	 *
+	 * @seq is considered "never been set" if it has a value of 0,
+	 * _except_ for @infos[0], which was specially setup by the ringbuffer
+	 * initializer and therefore is always considered as set.
+	 *
+	 * See the "Bootstrap" comment block in printk_ringbuffer.h for
+	 * details about how the initializer bootstraps the descriptors.
+	 */
+	if (seq == 0 && DESC_INDEX(desc_ring, id) != 0)
+		info->seq = DESC_INDEX(desc_ring, id);
+	else
+		info->seq = seq + DESCS_COUNT(desc_ring);
+
+	/*
+	 * New data is about to be reserved. Once that happens, previous
+	 * descriptors are no longer able to be extended. Finalize the
+	 * previous descriptor now so that it can be made available to
+	 * readers. (For seq==0 there is no previous descriptor.)
+	 */
+	if (info->seq > 0)
+		desc_make_final(desc_ring, DESC_ID(id - 1));
+
+	r->text_buf = data_alloc(rb, &rb->text_data_ring, r->text_buf_size,
+				 &d->text_blk_lpos, id);
+	/* If text data allocation fails, a data-less record is committed. */
+	if (r->text_buf_size && !r->text_buf) {
+		prb_commit(e);
+		/* prb_commit() re-enabled interrupts. */
+		goto fail;
+	}
+
+	r->info = info;
+
+	/* Record full text space used by record. */
+	e->text_space = space_used(&rb->text_data_ring, &d->text_blk_lpos);
+
+	return true;
+fail:
+	/* Make it clear to the caller that the reserve failed. */
+	memset(r, 0, sizeof(*r));
+	return false;
+}
+
+/* Commit the data (possibly finalizing it) and restore interrupts. */
+static void _prb_commit(struct prb_reserved_entry *e, unsigned long state_val)
+{
+	struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring = &e->rb->desc_ring;
+	struct prb_desc *d = to_desc(desc_ring, e->id);
+	unsigned long prev_state_val = DESC_SV(e->id, desc_reserved);
+
+	/* Now the writer has finished all writing: LMM(_prb_commit:A) */
+
+	/*
+	 * Set the descriptor as committed. See "ABA Issues" about why
+	 * cmpxchg() instead of set() is used.
+	 *
+	 * 1  Guarantee all record data is stored before the descriptor state
+	 *    is stored as committed. A write memory barrier is sufficient
+	 *    for this. This pairs with desc_read:B and desc_reopen_last:A.
+	 *
+	 * 2. Guarantee the descriptor state is stored as committed before
+	 *    re-checking the head ID in order to possibly finalize this
+	 *    descriptor. This pairs with desc_reserve:D.
+	 *
+	 *    Memory barrier involvement:
+	 *
+	 *    If prb_commit:A reads from desc_reserve:D, then
+	 *    desc_make_final:A reads from _prb_commit:B.
+	 *
+	 *    Relies on:
+	 *
+	 *    MB _prb_commit:B to prb_commit:A
+	 *       matching
+	 *    MB desc_reserve:D to desc_make_final:A
+	 */
+	if (!atomic_long_try_cmpxchg(&d->state_var, &prev_state_val,
+			DESC_SV(e->id, state_val))) { /* LMM(_prb_commit:B) */
+		WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
+	}
+
+	/* Restore interrupts, the reserve/commit window is finished. */
+	local_irq_restore(e->irqflags);
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_commit() - Commit (previously reserved) data to the ringbuffer.
+ *
+ * @e: The entry containing the reserved data information.
+ *
+ * This is the public function available to writers to commit data.
+ *
+ * Note that the data is not yet available to readers until it is finalized.
+ * Finalizing happens automatically when space for the next record is
+ * reserved.
+ *
+ * See prb_final_commit() for a version of this function that finalizes
+ * immediately.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context. Enables local interrupts.
+ */
+void prb_commit(struct prb_reserved_entry *e)
+{
+	struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring = &e->rb->desc_ring;
+	unsigned long head_id;
+
+	_prb_commit(e, desc_committed);
+
+	/*
+	 * If this descriptor is no longer the head (i.e. a new record has
+	 * been allocated), extending the data for this record is no longer
+	 * allowed and therefore it must be finalized.
+	 */
+	head_id = atomic_long_read(&desc_ring->head_id); /* LMM(prb_commit:A) */
+	if (head_id != e->id)
+		desc_make_final(desc_ring, e->id);
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_final_commit() - Commit and finalize (previously reserved) data to
+ *                      the ringbuffer.
+ *
+ * @e: The entry containing the reserved data information.
+ *
+ * This is the public function available to writers to commit+finalize data.
+ *
+ * By finalizing, the data is made immediately available to readers.
+ *
+ * This function should only be used if there are no intentions of extending
+ * this data using prb_reserve_in_last().
+ *
+ * Context: Any context. Enables local interrupts.
+ */
+void prb_final_commit(struct prb_reserved_entry *e)
+{
+	_prb_commit(e, desc_finalized);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Count the number of lines in provided text. All text has at least 1 line
+ * (even if @text_size is 0). Each '\n' processed is counted as an additional
+ * line.
+ */
+static unsigned int count_lines(const char *text, unsigned int text_size)
+{
+	unsigned int next_size = text_size;
+	unsigned int line_count = 1;
+	const char *next = text;
+
+	while (next_size) {
+		next = memchr(next, '\n', next_size);
+		if (!next)
+			break;
+		line_count++;
+		next++;
+		next_size = text_size - (next - text);
+	}
+
+	return line_count;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Given @blk_lpos, copy an expected @len of data into the provided buffer.
+ * If @line_count is provided, count the number of lines in the data.
+ *
+ * This function (used by readers) performs strict validation on the data
+ * size to possibly detect bugs in the writer code. A WARN_ON_ONCE() is
+ * triggered if an internal error is detected.
+ */
+static bool copy_data(struct prb_data_ring *data_ring,
+		      struct prb_data_blk_lpos *blk_lpos, u16 len, char *buf,
+		      unsigned int buf_size, unsigned int *line_count)
+{
+	unsigned int data_size;
+	const char *data;
+
+	/* Caller might not want any data. */
+	if ((!buf || !buf_size) && !line_count)
+		return true;
+
+	data = get_data(data_ring, blk_lpos, &data_size);
+	if (!data)
+		return false;
+
+	/*
+	 * Actual cannot be less than expected. It can be more than expected
+	 * because of the trailing alignment padding.
+	 *
+	 * Note that invalid @len values can occur because the caller loads
+	 * the value during an allowed data race.
+	 */
+	if (data_size < (unsigned int)len)
+		return false;
+
+	/* Caller interested in the line count? */
+	if (line_count)
+		*line_count = count_lines(data, data_size);
+
+	/* Caller interested in the data content? */
+	if (!buf || !buf_size)
+		return true;
+
+	data_size = min_t(u16, buf_size, len);
+
+	memcpy(&buf[0], data, data_size); /* LMM(copy_data:A) */
+	return true;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This is an extended version of desc_read(). It gets a copy of a specified
+ * descriptor. However, it also verifies that the record is finalized and has
+ * the sequence number @seq. On success, 0 is returned.
+ *
+ * Error return values:
+ * -EINVAL: A finalized record with sequence number @seq does not exist.
+ * -ENOENT: A finalized record with sequence number @seq exists, but its data
+ *          is not available. This is a valid record, so readers should
+ *          continue with the next record.
+ */
+static int desc_read_finalized_seq(struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring,
+				   unsigned long id, u64 seq,
+				   struct prb_desc *desc_out)
+{
+	struct prb_data_blk_lpos *blk_lpos = &desc_out->text_blk_lpos;
+	enum desc_state d_state;
+	u64 s;
+
+	d_state = desc_read(desc_ring, id, desc_out, &s, NULL);
+
+	/*
+	 * An unexpected @id (desc_miss) or @seq mismatch means the record
+	 * does not exist. A descriptor in the reserved or committed state
+	 * means the record does not yet exist for the reader.
+	 */
+	if (d_state == desc_miss ||
+	    d_state == desc_reserved ||
+	    d_state == desc_committed ||
+	    s != seq) {
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * A descriptor in the reusable state may no longer have its data
+	 * available; report it as existing but with lost data. Or the record
+	 * may actually be a record with lost data.
+	 */
+	if (d_state == desc_reusable ||
+	    (blk_lpos->begin == FAILED_LPOS && blk_lpos->next == FAILED_LPOS)) {
+		return -ENOENT;
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Copy the ringbuffer data from the record with @seq to the provided
+ * @r buffer. On success, 0 is returned.
+ *
+ * See desc_read_finalized_seq() for error return values.
+ */
+static int prb_read(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb, u64 seq,
+		    struct printk_record *r, unsigned int *line_count)
+{
+	struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring = &rb->desc_ring;
+	struct printk_info *info = to_info(desc_ring, seq);
+	struct prb_desc *rdesc = to_desc(desc_ring, seq);
+	atomic_long_t *state_var = &rdesc->state_var;
+	struct prb_desc desc;
+	unsigned long id;
+	int err;
+
+	/* Extract the ID, used to specify the descriptor to read. */
+	id = DESC_ID(atomic_long_read(state_var));
+
+	/* Get a local copy of the correct descriptor (if available). */
+	err = desc_read_finalized_seq(desc_ring, id, seq, &desc);
+
+	/*
+	 * If @r is NULL, the caller is only interested in the availability
+	 * of the record.
+	 */
+	if (err || !r)
+		return err;
+
+	/* If requested, copy meta data. */
+	if (r->info)
+		memcpy(r->info, info, sizeof(*(r->info)));
+
+	/* Copy text data. If it fails, this is a data-less record. */
+	if (!copy_data(&rb->text_data_ring, &desc.text_blk_lpos, info->text_len,
+		       r->text_buf, r->text_buf_size, line_count)) {
+		return -ENOENT;
+	}
+
+	/* Ensure the record is still finalized and has the same @seq. */
+	return desc_read_finalized_seq(desc_ring, id, seq, &desc);
+}
+
+/* Get the sequence number of the tail descriptor. */
+static u64 prb_first_seq(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb)
+{
+	struct prb_desc_ring *desc_ring = &rb->desc_ring;
+	enum desc_state d_state;
+	struct prb_desc desc;
+	unsigned long id;
+	u64 seq;
+
+	for (;;) {
+		id = atomic_long_read(&rb->desc_ring.tail_id); /* LMM(prb_first_seq:A) */
+
+		d_state = desc_read(desc_ring, id, &desc, &seq, NULL); /* LMM(prb_first_seq:B) */
+
+		/*
+		 * This loop will not be infinite because the tail is
+		 * _always_ in the finalized or reusable state.
+		 */
+		if (d_state == desc_finalized || d_state == desc_reusable)
+			break;
+
+		/*
+		 * Guarantee the last state load from desc_read() is before
+		 * reloading @tail_id in order to see a new tail in the case
+		 * that the descriptor has been recycled. This pairs with
+		 * desc_reserve:D.
+		 *
+		 * Memory barrier involvement:
+		 *
+		 * If prb_first_seq:B reads from desc_reserve:F, then
+		 * prb_first_seq:A reads from desc_push_tail:B.
+		 *
+		 * Relies on:
+		 *
+		 * MB from desc_push_tail:B to desc_reserve:F
+		 *    matching
+		 * RMB prb_first_seq:B to prb_first_seq:A
+		 */
+		smp_rmb(); /* LMM(prb_first_seq:C) */
+	}
+
+	return seq;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Non-blocking read of a record. Updates @seq to the last finalized record
+ * (which may have no data available).
+ *
+ * See the description of prb_read_valid() and prb_read_valid_info()
+ * for details.
+ */
+static bool _prb_read_valid(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb, u64 *seq,
+			    struct printk_record *r, unsigned int *line_count)
+{
+	u64 tail_seq;
+	int err;
+
+	while ((err = prb_read(rb, *seq, r, line_count))) {
+		tail_seq = prb_first_seq(rb);
+
+		if (*seq < tail_seq) {
+			/*
+			 * Behind the tail. Catch up and try again. This
+			 * can happen for -ENOENT and -EINVAL cases.
+			 */
+			*seq = tail_seq;
+
+		} else if (err == -ENOENT) {
+			/* Record exists, but no data available. Skip. */
+			(*seq)++;
+
+		} else {
+			/* Non-existent/non-finalized record. Must stop. */
+			return false;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_read_valid() - Non-blocking read of a requested record or (if gone)
+ *                    the next available record.
+ *
+ * @rb:  The ringbuffer to read from.
+ * @seq: The sequence number of the record to read.
+ * @r:   A record data buffer to store the read record to.
+ *
+ * This is the public function available to readers to read a record.
+ *
+ * The reader provides the @info and @text_buf buffers of @r to be
+ * filled in. Any of the buffer pointers can be set to NULL if the reader
+ * is not interested in that data. To ensure proper initialization of @r,
+ * prb_rec_init_rd() should be used.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context.
+ * Return: true if a record was read, otherwise false.
+ *
+ * On success, the reader must check r->info.seq to see which record was
+ * actually read. This allows the reader to detect dropped records.
+ *
+ * Failure means @seq refers to a not yet written record.
+ */
+bool prb_read_valid(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb, u64 seq,
+		    struct printk_record *r)
+{
+	return _prb_read_valid(rb, &seq, r, NULL);
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_read_valid_info() - Non-blocking read of meta data for a requested
+ *                         record or (if gone) the next available record.
+ *
+ * @rb:         The ringbuffer to read from.
+ * @seq:        The sequence number of the record to read.
+ * @info:       A buffer to store the read record meta data to.
+ * @line_count: A buffer to store the number of lines in the record text.
+ *
+ * This is the public function available to readers to read only the
+ * meta data of a record.
+ *
+ * The reader provides the @info, @line_count buffers to be filled in.
+ * Either of the buffer pointers can be set to NULL if the reader is not
+ * interested in that data.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context.
+ * Return: true if a record's meta data was read, otherwise false.
+ *
+ * On success, the reader must check info->seq to see which record meta data
+ * was actually read. This allows the reader to detect dropped records.
+ *
+ * Failure means @seq refers to a not yet written record.
+ */
+bool prb_read_valid_info(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb, u64 seq,
+			 struct printk_info *info, unsigned int *line_count)
+{
+	struct printk_record r;
+
+	prb_rec_init_rd(&r, info, NULL, 0);
+
+	return _prb_read_valid(rb, &seq, &r, line_count);
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_first_valid_seq() - Get the sequence number of the oldest available
+ *                         record.
+ *
+ * @rb: The ringbuffer to get the sequence number from.
+ *
+ * This is the public function available to readers to see what the
+ * first/oldest valid sequence number is.
+ *
+ * This provides readers a starting point to begin iterating the ringbuffer.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context.
+ * Return: The sequence number of the first/oldest record or, if the
+ *         ringbuffer is empty, 0 is returned.
+ */
+u64 prb_first_valid_seq(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb)
+{
+	u64 seq = 0;
+
+	if (!_prb_read_valid(rb, &seq, NULL, NULL))
+		return 0;
+
+	return seq;
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_next_seq() - Get the sequence number after the last available record.
+ *
+ * @rb:  The ringbuffer to get the sequence number from.
+ *
+ * This is the public function available to readers to see what the next
+ * newest sequence number available to readers will be.
+ *
+ * This provides readers a sequence number to jump to if all currently
+ * available records should be skipped.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context.
+ * Return: The sequence number of the next newest (not yet available) record
+ *         for readers.
+ */
+u64 prb_next_seq(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb)
+{
+	u64 seq = 0;
+
+	/* Search forward from the oldest descriptor. */
+	while (_prb_read_valid(rb, &seq, NULL, NULL))
+		seq++;
+
+	return seq;
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_init() - Initialize a ringbuffer to use provided external buffers.
+ *
+ * @rb:       The ringbuffer to initialize.
+ * @text_buf: The data buffer for text data.
+ * @textbits: The size of @text_buf as a power-of-2 value.
+ * @descs:    The descriptor buffer for ringbuffer records.
+ * @descbits: The count of @descs items as a power-of-2 value.
+ * @infos:    The printk_info buffer for ringbuffer records.
+ *
+ * This is the public function available to writers to setup a ringbuffer
+ * during runtime using provided buffers.
+ *
+ * This must match the initialization of DEFINE_PRINTKRB().
+ *
+ * Context: Any context.
+ */
+void prb_init(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+	      char *text_buf, unsigned int textbits,
+	      struct prb_desc *descs, unsigned int descbits,
+	      struct printk_info *infos)
+{
+	memset(descs, 0, _DESCS_COUNT(descbits) * sizeof(descs[0]));
+	memset(infos, 0, _DESCS_COUNT(descbits) * sizeof(infos[0]));
+
+	rb->desc_ring.count_bits = descbits;
+	rb->desc_ring.descs = descs;
+	rb->desc_ring.infos = infos;
+	atomic_long_set(&rb->desc_ring.head_id, DESC0_ID(descbits));
+	atomic_long_set(&rb->desc_ring.tail_id, DESC0_ID(descbits));
+
+	rb->text_data_ring.size_bits = textbits;
+	rb->text_data_ring.data = text_buf;
+	atomic_long_set(&rb->text_data_ring.head_lpos, BLK0_LPOS(textbits));
+	atomic_long_set(&rb->text_data_ring.tail_lpos, BLK0_LPOS(textbits));
+
+	atomic_long_set(&rb->fail, 0);
+
+	atomic_long_set(&(descs[_DESCS_COUNT(descbits) - 1].state_var), DESC0_SV(descbits));
+	descs[_DESCS_COUNT(descbits) - 1].text_blk_lpos.begin = FAILED_LPOS;
+	descs[_DESCS_COUNT(descbits) - 1].text_blk_lpos.next = FAILED_LPOS;
+
+	infos[0].seq = -(u64)_DESCS_COUNT(descbits);
+	infos[_DESCS_COUNT(descbits) - 1].seq = 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_record_text_space() - Query the full actual used ringbuffer space for
+ *                           the text data of a reserved entry.
+ *
+ * @e: The successfully reserved entry to query.
+ *
+ * This is the public function available to writers to see how much actual
+ * space is used in the ringbuffer to store the text data of the specified
+ * entry.
+ *
+ * This function is only valid if @e has been successfully reserved using
+ * prb_reserve().
+ *
+ * Context: Any context.
+ * Return: The size in bytes used by the text data of the associated record.
+ */
+unsigned int prb_record_text_space(struct prb_reserved_entry *e)
+{
+	return e->text_space;
+}
diff --git a/kernel/printk/printk_ringbuffer.h b/kernel/printk/printk_ringbuffer.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5dc9d02
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/printk/printk_ringbuffer.h
@@ -0,0 +1,382 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
+
+#ifndef _KERNEL_PRINTK_RINGBUFFER_H
+#define _KERNEL_PRINTK_RINGBUFFER_H
+
+#include <linux/atomic.h>
+#include <linux/dev_printk.h>
+
+/*
+ * Meta information about each stored message.
+ *
+ * All fields are set by the printk code except for @seq, which is
+ * set by the ringbuffer code.
+ */
+struct printk_info {
+	u64	seq;		/* sequence number */
+	u64	ts_nsec;	/* timestamp in nanoseconds */
+	u16	text_len;	/* length of text message */
+	u8	facility;	/* syslog facility */
+	u8	flags:5;	/* internal record flags */
+	u8	level:3;	/* syslog level */
+	u32	caller_id;	/* thread id or processor id */
+
+	struct dev_printk_info	dev_info;
+};
+
+/*
+ * A structure providing the buffers, used by writers and readers.
+ *
+ * Writers:
+ * Using prb_rec_init_wr(), a writer sets @text_buf_size before calling
+ * prb_reserve(). On success, prb_reserve() sets @info and @text_buf to
+ * buffers reserved for that writer.
+ *
+ * Readers:
+ * Using prb_rec_init_rd(), a reader sets all fields before calling
+ * prb_read_valid(). Note that the reader provides the @info and @text_buf,
+ * buffers. On success, the struct pointed to by @info will be filled and
+ * the char array pointed to by @text_buf will be filled with text data.
+ */
+struct printk_record {
+	struct printk_info	*info;
+	char			*text_buf;
+	unsigned int		text_buf_size;
+};
+
+/* Specifies the logical position and span of a data block. */
+struct prb_data_blk_lpos {
+	unsigned long	begin;
+	unsigned long	next;
+};
+
+/*
+ * A descriptor: the complete meta-data for a record.
+ *
+ * @state_var: A bitwise combination of descriptor ID and descriptor state.
+ */
+struct prb_desc {
+	atomic_long_t			state_var;
+	struct prb_data_blk_lpos	text_blk_lpos;
+};
+
+/* A ringbuffer of "ID + data" elements. */
+struct prb_data_ring {
+	unsigned int	size_bits;
+	char		*data;
+	atomic_long_t	head_lpos;
+	atomic_long_t	tail_lpos;
+};
+
+/* A ringbuffer of "struct prb_desc" elements. */
+struct prb_desc_ring {
+	unsigned int		count_bits;
+	struct prb_desc		*descs;
+	struct printk_info	*infos;
+	atomic_long_t		head_id;
+	atomic_long_t		tail_id;
+};
+
+/*
+ * The high level structure representing the printk ringbuffer.
+ *
+ * @fail: Count of failed prb_reserve() calls where not even a data-less
+ *        record was created.
+ */
+struct printk_ringbuffer {
+	struct prb_desc_ring	desc_ring;
+	struct prb_data_ring	text_data_ring;
+	atomic_long_t		fail;
+};
+
+/*
+ * Used by writers as a reserve/commit handle.
+ *
+ * @rb:         Ringbuffer where the entry is reserved.
+ * @irqflags:   Saved irq flags to restore on entry commit.
+ * @id:         ID of the reserved descriptor.
+ * @text_space: Total occupied buffer space in the text data ring, including
+ *              ID, alignment padding, and wrapping data blocks.
+ *
+ * This structure is an opaque handle for writers. Its contents are only
+ * to be used by the ringbuffer implementation.
+ */
+struct prb_reserved_entry {
+	struct printk_ringbuffer	*rb;
+	unsigned long			irqflags;
+	unsigned long			id;
+	unsigned int			text_space;
+};
+
+/* The possible responses of a descriptor state-query. */
+enum desc_state {
+	desc_miss	=  -1,	/* ID mismatch (pseudo state) */
+	desc_reserved	= 0x0,	/* reserved, in use by writer */
+	desc_committed	= 0x1,	/* committed by writer, could get reopened */
+	desc_finalized	= 0x2,	/* committed, no further modification allowed */
+	desc_reusable	= 0x3,	/* free, not yet used by any writer */
+};
+
+#define _DATA_SIZE(sz_bits)	(1UL << (sz_bits))
+#define _DESCS_COUNT(ct_bits)	(1U << (ct_bits))
+#define DESC_SV_BITS		(sizeof(unsigned long) * 8)
+#define DESC_FLAGS_SHIFT	(DESC_SV_BITS - 2)
+#define DESC_FLAGS_MASK		(3UL << DESC_FLAGS_SHIFT)
+#define DESC_STATE(sv)		(3UL & (sv >> DESC_FLAGS_SHIFT))
+#define DESC_SV(id, state)	(((unsigned long)state << DESC_FLAGS_SHIFT) | id)
+#define DESC_ID_MASK		(~DESC_FLAGS_MASK)
+#define DESC_ID(sv)		((sv) & DESC_ID_MASK)
+#define FAILED_LPOS		0x1
+#define NO_LPOS			0x3
+
+#define FAILED_BLK_LPOS	\
+{				\
+	.begin	= FAILED_LPOS,	\
+	.next	= FAILED_LPOS,	\
+}
+
+/*
+ * Descriptor Bootstrap
+ *
+ * The descriptor array is minimally initialized to allow immediate usage
+ * by readers and writers. The requirements that the descriptor array
+ * initialization must satisfy:
+ *
+ *   Req1
+ *     The tail must point to an existing (committed or reusable) descriptor.
+ *     This is required by the implementation of prb_first_seq().
+ *
+ *   Req2
+ *     Readers must see that the ringbuffer is initially empty.
+ *
+ *   Req3
+ *     The first record reserved by a writer is assigned sequence number 0.
+ *
+ * To satisfy Req1, the tail initially points to a descriptor that is
+ * minimally initialized (having no data block, i.e. data-less with the
+ * data block's lpos @begin and @next values set to FAILED_LPOS).
+ *
+ * To satisfy Req2, the initial tail descriptor is initialized to the
+ * reusable state. Readers recognize reusable descriptors as existing
+ * records, but skip over them.
+ *
+ * To satisfy Req3, the last descriptor in the array is used as the initial
+ * head (and tail) descriptor. This allows the first record reserved by a
+ * writer (head + 1) to be the first descriptor in the array. (Only the first
+ * descriptor in the array could have a valid sequence number of 0.)
+ *
+ * The first time a descriptor is reserved, it is assigned a sequence number
+ * with the value of the array index. A "first time reserved" descriptor can
+ * be recognized because it has a sequence number of 0 but does not have an
+ * index of 0. (Only the first descriptor in the array could have a valid
+ * sequence number of 0.) After the first reservation, all future reservations
+ * (recycling) simply involve incrementing the sequence number by the array
+ * count.
+ *
+ *   Hack #1
+ *     Only the first descriptor in the array is allowed to have the sequence
+ *     number 0. In this case it is not possible to recognize if it is being
+ *     reserved the first time (set to index value) or has been reserved
+ *     previously (increment by the array count). This is handled by _always_
+ *     incrementing the sequence number by the array count when reserving the
+ *     first descriptor in the array. In order to satisfy Req3, the sequence
+ *     number of the first descriptor in the array is initialized to minus
+ *     the array count. Then, upon the first reservation, it is incremented
+ *     to 0, thus satisfying Req3.
+ *
+ *   Hack #2
+ *     prb_first_seq() can be called at any time by readers to retrieve the
+ *     sequence number of the tail descriptor. However, due to Req2 and Req3,
+ *     initially there are no records to report the sequence number of
+ *     (sequence numbers are u64 and there is nothing less than 0). To handle
+ *     this, the sequence number of the initial tail descriptor is initialized
+ *     to 0. Technically this is incorrect, because there is no record with
+ *     sequence number 0 (yet) and the tail descriptor is not the first
+ *     descriptor in the array. But it allows prb_read_valid() to correctly
+ *     report the existence of a record for _any_ given sequence number at all
+ *     times. Bootstrapping is complete when the tail is pushed the first
+ *     time, thus finally pointing to the first descriptor reserved by a
+ *     writer, which has the assigned sequence number 0.
+ */
+
+/*
+ * Initiating Logical Value Overflows
+ *
+ * Both logical position (lpos) and ID values can be mapped to array indexes
+ * but may experience overflows during the lifetime of the system. To ensure
+ * that printk_ringbuffer can handle the overflows for these types, initial
+ * values are chosen that map to the correct initial array indexes, but will
+ * result in overflows soon.
+ *
+ *   BLK0_LPOS
+ *     The initial @head_lpos and @tail_lpos for data rings. It is at index
+ *     0 and the lpos value is such that it will overflow on the first wrap.
+ *
+ *   DESC0_ID
+ *     The initial @head_id and @tail_id for the desc ring. It is at the last
+ *     index of the descriptor array (see Req3 above) and the ID value is such
+ *     that it will overflow on the second wrap.
+ */
+#define BLK0_LPOS(sz_bits)	(-(_DATA_SIZE(sz_bits)))
+#define DESC0_ID(ct_bits)	DESC_ID(-(_DESCS_COUNT(ct_bits) + 1))
+#define DESC0_SV(ct_bits)	DESC_SV(DESC0_ID(ct_bits), desc_reusable)
+
+/*
+ * Define a ringbuffer with an external text data buffer. The same as
+ * DEFINE_PRINTKRB() but requires specifying an external buffer for the
+ * text data.
+ *
+ * Note: The specified external buffer must be of the size:
+ *       2 ^ (descbits + avgtextbits)
+ */
+#define _DEFINE_PRINTKRB(name, descbits, avgtextbits, text_buf)			\
+static struct prb_desc _##name##_descs[_DESCS_COUNT(descbits)] = {				\
+	/* the initial head and tail */								\
+	[_DESCS_COUNT(descbits) - 1] = {							\
+		/* reusable */									\
+		.state_var	= ATOMIC_INIT(DESC0_SV(descbits)),				\
+		/* no associated data block */							\
+		.text_blk_lpos	= FAILED_BLK_LPOS,						\
+	},											\
+};												\
+static struct printk_info _##name##_infos[_DESCS_COUNT(descbits)] = {				\
+	/* this will be the first record reserved by a writer */				\
+	[0] = {											\
+		/* will be incremented to 0 on the first reservation */				\
+		.seq = -(u64)_DESCS_COUNT(descbits),						\
+	},											\
+	/* the initial head and tail */								\
+	[_DESCS_COUNT(descbits) - 1] = {							\
+		/* reports the first seq value during the bootstrap phase */			\
+		.seq = 0,									\
+	},											\
+};												\
+static struct printk_ringbuffer name = {							\
+	.desc_ring = {										\
+		.count_bits	= descbits,							\
+		.descs		= &_##name##_descs[0],						\
+		.infos		= &_##name##_infos[0],						\
+		.head_id	= ATOMIC_INIT(DESC0_ID(descbits)),				\
+		.tail_id	= ATOMIC_INIT(DESC0_ID(descbits)),				\
+	},											\
+	.text_data_ring = {									\
+		.size_bits	= (avgtextbits) + (descbits),					\
+		.data		= text_buf,							\
+		.head_lpos	= ATOMIC_LONG_INIT(BLK0_LPOS((avgtextbits) + (descbits))),	\
+		.tail_lpos	= ATOMIC_LONG_INIT(BLK0_LPOS((avgtextbits) + (descbits))),	\
+	},											\
+	.fail			= ATOMIC_LONG_INIT(0),						\
+}
+
+/**
+ * DEFINE_PRINTKRB() - Define a ringbuffer.
+ *
+ * @name:        The name of the ringbuffer variable.
+ * @descbits:    The number of descriptors as a power-of-2 value.
+ * @avgtextbits: The average text data size per record as a power-of-2 value.
+ *
+ * This is a macro for defining a ringbuffer and all internal structures
+ * such that it is ready for immediate use. See _DEFINE_PRINTKRB() for a
+ * variant where the text data buffer can be specified externally.
+ */
+#define DEFINE_PRINTKRB(name, descbits, avgtextbits)				\
+static char _##name##_text[1U << ((avgtextbits) + (descbits))]			\
+			__aligned(__alignof__(unsigned long));			\
+_DEFINE_PRINTKRB(name, descbits, avgtextbits, &_##name##_text[0])
+
+/* Writer Interface */
+
+/**
+ * prb_rec_init_wd() - Initialize a buffer for writing records.
+ *
+ * @r:             The record to initialize.
+ * @text_buf_size: The needed text buffer size.
+ */
+static inline void prb_rec_init_wr(struct printk_record *r,
+				   unsigned int text_buf_size)
+{
+	r->info = NULL;
+	r->text_buf = NULL;
+	r->text_buf_size = text_buf_size;
+}
+
+bool prb_reserve(struct prb_reserved_entry *e, struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+		 struct printk_record *r);
+bool prb_reserve_in_last(struct prb_reserved_entry *e, struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+			 struct printk_record *r, u32 caller_id, unsigned int max_size);
+void prb_commit(struct prb_reserved_entry *e);
+void prb_final_commit(struct prb_reserved_entry *e);
+
+void prb_init(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb,
+	      char *text_buf, unsigned int text_buf_size,
+	      struct prb_desc *descs, unsigned int descs_count_bits,
+	      struct printk_info *infos);
+unsigned int prb_record_text_space(struct prb_reserved_entry *e);
+
+/* Reader Interface */
+
+/**
+ * prb_rec_init_rd() - Initialize a buffer for reading records.
+ *
+ * @r:             The record to initialize.
+ * @info:          A buffer to store record meta-data.
+ * @text_buf:      A buffer to store text data.
+ * @text_buf_size: The size of @text_buf.
+ *
+ * Initialize all the fields that a reader is interested in. All arguments
+ * (except @r) are optional. Only record data for arguments that are
+ * non-NULL or non-zero will be read.
+ */
+static inline void prb_rec_init_rd(struct printk_record *r,
+				   struct printk_info *info,
+				   char *text_buf, unsigned int text_buf_size)
+{
+	r->info = info;
+	r->text_buf = text_buf;
+	r->text_buf_size = text_buf_size;
+}
+
+/**
+ * prb_for_each_record() - Iterate over the records of a ringbuffer.
+ *
+ * @from: The sequence number to begin with.
+ * @rb:   The ringbuffer to iterate over.
+ * @s:    A u64 to store the sequence number on each iteration.
+ * @r:    A printk_record to store the record on each iteration.
+ *
+ * This is a macro for conveniently iterating over a ringbuffer.
+ * Note that @s may not be the sequence number of the record on each
+ * iteration. For the sequence number, @r->info->seq should be checked.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context.
+ */
+#define prb_for_each_record(from, rb, s, r) \
+for ((s) = from; prb_read_valid(rb, s, r); (s) = (r)->info->seq + 1)
+
+/**
+ * prb_for_each_info() - Iterate over the meta data of a ringbuffer.
+ *
+ * @from: The sequence number to begin with.
+ * @rb:   The ringbuffer to iterate over.
+ * @s:    A u64 to store the sequence number on each iteration.
+ * @i:    A printk_info to store the record meta data on each iteration.
+ * @lc:   An unsigned int to store the text line count of each record.
+ *
+ * This is a macro for conveniently iterating over a ringbuffer.
+ * Note that @s may not be the sequence number of the record on each
+ * iteration. For the sequence number, @r->info->seq should be checked.
+ *
+ * Context: Any context.
+ */
+#define prb_for_each_info(from, rb, s, i, lc) \
+for ((s) = from; prb_read_valid_info(rb, s, i, lc); (s) = (i)->seq + 1)
+
+bool prb_read_valid(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb, u64 seq,
+		    struct printk_record *r);
+bool prb_read_valid_info(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb, u64 seq,
+			 struct printk_info *info, unsigned int *line_count);
+
+u64 prb_first_valid_seq(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb);
+u64 prb_next_seq(struct printk_ringbuffer *rb);
+
+#endif /* _KERNEL_PRINTK_RINGBUFFER_H */
diff --git a/kernel/printk/printk_safe.c b/kernel/printk/printk_safe.c
index 50aeae7..5dbc401 100644
--- a/kernel/printk/printk_safe.c
+++ b/kernel/printk/printk_safe.c
@@ -375,7 +375,7 @@
 	    raw_spin_trylock(&logbuf_lock)) {
 		int len;
 
-		len = vprintk_store(0, LOGLEVEL_DEFAULT, NULL, 0, fmt, args);
+		len = vprintk_store(0, LOGLEVEL_DEFAULT, NULL, fmt, args);
 		raw_spin_unlock(&logbuf_lock);
 		defer_console_output();
 		return len;
diff --git a/scripts/gdb/linux/dmesg.py b/scripts/gdb/linux/dmesg.py
index 2fa7bb8..a92c55b 100644
--- a/scripts/gdb/linux/dmesg.py
+++ b/scripts/gdb/linux/dmesg.py
@@ -16,8 +16,13 @@
 
 from linux import utils
 
-printk_log_type = utils.CachedType("struct printk_log")
-
+printk_info_type = utils.CachedType("struct printk_info")
+prb_data_blk_lpos_type = utils.CachedType("struct prb_data_blk_lpos")
+prb_desc_type = utils.CachedType("struct prb_desc")
+prb_desc_ring_type = utils.CachedType("struct prb_desc_ring")
+prb_data_ring_type = utils.CachedType("struct prb_data_ring")
+printk_ringbuffer_type = utils.CachedType("struct printk_ringbuffer")
+atomic_long_type = utils.CachedType("atomic_long_t")
 
 class LxDmesg(gdb.Command):
     """Print Linux kernel log buffer."""
@@ -26,44 +31,110 @@
         super(LxDmesg, self).__init__("lx-dmesg", gdb.COMMAND_DATA)
 
     def invoke(self, arg, from_tty):
-        log_buf_addr = int(str(gdb.parse_and_eval(
-            "(void *)'printk.c'::log_buf")).split()[0], 16)
-        log_first_idx = int(gdb.parse_and_eval("'printk.c'::log_first_idx"))
-        log_next_idx = int(gdb.parse_and_eval("'printk.c'::log_next_idx"))
-        log_buf_len = int(gdb.parse_and_eval("'printk.c'::log_buf_len"))
-
         inf = gdb.inferiors()[0]
-        start = log_buf_addr + log_first_idx
-        if log_first_idx < log_next_idx:
-            log_buf_2nd_half = -1
-            length = log_next_idx - log_first_idx
-            log_buf = utils.read_memoryview(inf, start, length).tobytes()
-        else:
-            log_buf_2nd_half = log_buf_len - log_first_idx
-            a = utils.read_memoryview(inf, start, log_buf_2nd_half)
-            b = utils.read_memoryview(inf, log_buf_addr, log_next_idx)
-            log_buf = a.tobytes() + b.tobytes()
 
-        length_offset = printk_log_type.get_type()['len'].bitpos // 8
-        text_len_offset = printk_log_type.get_type()['text_len'].bitpos // 8
-        time_stamp_offset = printk_log_type.get_type()['ts_nsec'].bitpos // 8
-        text_offset = printk_log_type.get_type().sizeof
+        # read in prb structure
+        prb_addr = int(str(gdb.parse_and_eval("(void *)'printk.c'::prb")).split()[0], 16)
+        sz = printk_ringbuffer_type.get_type().sizeof
+        prb = utils.read_memoryview(inf, prb_addr, sz).tobytes()
 
-        pos = 0
-        while pos < log_buf.__len__():
-            length = utils.read_u16(log_buf, pos + length_offset)
-            if length == 0:
-                if log_buf_2nd_half == -1:
-                    gdb.write("Corrupted log buffer!\n")
+        # read in descriptor ring structure
+        off = printk_ringbuffer_type.get_type()['desc_ring'].bitpos // 8
+        addr = prb_addr + off
+        sz = prb_desc_ring_type.get_type().sizeof
+        desc_ring = utils.read_memoryview(inf, addr, sz).tobytes()
+
+        # read in descriptor array
+        off = prb_desc_ring_type.get_type()['count_bits'].bitpos // 8
+        desc_ring_count = 1 << utils.read_u32(desc_ring, off)
+        desc_sz = prb_desc_type.get_type().sizeof
+        off = prb_desc_ring_type.get_type()['descs'].bitpos // 8
+        addr = utils.read_ulong(desc_ring, off)
+        descs = utils.read_memoryview(inf, addr, desc_sz * desc_ring_count).tobytes()
+
+        # read in info array
+        info_sz = printk_info_type.get_type().sizeof
+        off = prb_desc_ring_type.get_type()['infos'].bitpos // 8
+        addr = utils.read_ulong(desc_ring, off)
+        infos = utils.read_memoryview(inf, addr, info_sz * desc_ring_count).tobytes()
+
+        # read in text data ring structure
+        off = printk_ringbuffer_type.get_type()['text_data_ring'].bitpos // 8
+        addr = prb_addr + off
+        sz = prb_data_ring_type.get_type().sizeof
+        text_data_ring = utils.read_memoryview(inf, addr, sz).tobytes()
+
+        # read in text data
+        off = prb_data_ring_type.get_type()['size_bits'].bitpos // 8
+        text_data_sz = 1 << utils.read_u32(text_data_ring, off)
+        off = prb_data_ring_type.get_type()['data'].bitpos // 8
+        addr = utils.read_ulong(text_data_ring, off)
+        text_data = utils.read_memoryview(inf, addr, text_data_sz).tobytes()
+
+        counter_off = atomic_long_type.get_type()['counter'].bitpos // 8
+
+        sv_off = prb_desc_type.get_type()['state_var'].bitpos // 8
+
+        off = prb_desc_type.get_type()['text_blk_lpos'].bitpos // 8
+        begin_off = off + (prb_data_blk_lpos_type.get_type()['begin'].bitpos // 8)
+        next_off = off + (prb_data_blk_lpos_type.get_type()['next'].bitpos // 8)
+
+        ts_off = printk_info_type.get_type()['ts_nsec'].bitpos // 8
+        len_off = printk_info_type.get_type()['text_len'].bitpos // 8
+
+        # definitions from kernel/printk/printk_ringbuffer.h
+        desc_committed = 1
+        desc_finalized = 2
+        desc_sv_bits = utils.get_long_type().sizeof * 8
+        desc_flags_shift = desc_sv_bits - 2
+        desc_flags_mask = 3 << desc_flags_shift
+        desc_id_mask = ~desc_flags_mask
+
+        # read in tail and head descriptor ids
+        off = prb_desc_ring_type.get_type()['tail_id'].bitpos // 8
+        tail_id = utils.read_u64(desc_ring, off + counter_off)
+        off = prb_desc_ring_type.get_type()['head_id'].bitpos // 8
+        head_id = utils.read_u64(desc_ring, off + counter_off)
+
+        did = tail_id
+        while True:
+            ind = did % desc_ring_count
+            desc_off = desc_sz * ind
+            info_off = info_sz * ind
+
+            # skip non-committed record
+            state = 3 & (utils.read_u64(descs, desc_off + sv_off +
+                                        counter_off) >> desc_flags_shift)
+            if state != desc_committed and state != desc_finalized:
+                if did == head_id:
                     break
-                pos = log_buf_2nd_half
+                did = (did + 1) & desc_id_mask
                 continue
 
-            text_len = utils.read_u16(log_buf, pos + text_len_offset)
-            text_start = pos + text_offset
-            text = log_buf[text_start:text_start + text_len].decode(
-                encoding='utf8', errors='replace')
-            time_stamp = utils.read_u64(log_buf, pos + time_stamp_offset)
+            begin = utils.read_ulong(descs, desc_off + begin_off) % text_data_sz
+            end = utils.read_ulong(descs, desc_off + next_off) % text_data_sz
+
+            # handle data-less record
+            if begin & 1 == 1:
+                text = ""
+            else:
+                # handle wrapping data block
+                if begin > end:
+                    begin = 0
+
+                # skip over descriptor id
+                text_start = begin + utils.get_long_type().sizeof
+
+                text_len = utils.read_u16(infos, info_off + len_off)
+
+                # handle truncated message
+                if end - text_start < text_len:
+                    text_len = end - text_start
+
+                text = text_data[text_start:text_start + text_len].decode(
+                    encoding='utf8', errors='replace')
+
+            time_stamp = utils.read_u64(infos, info_off + ts_off)
 
             for line in text.splitlines():
                 msg = u"[{time:12.6f}] {line}\n".format(
@@ -75,7 +146,9 @@
                     msg = msg.encode(encoding='utf8', errors='replace')
                 gdb.write(msg)
 
-            pos += length
+            if did == head_id:
+                break
+            did = (did + 1) & desc_id_mask
 
 
 LxDmesg()
diff --git a/scripts/gdb/linux/utils.py b/scripts/gdb/linux/utils.py
index ea94221..ff7c179 100644
--- a/scripts/gdb/linux/utils.py
+++ b/scripts/gdb/linux/utils.py
@@ -123,6 +123,13 @@
         return read_u32(buffer, offset + 4) + (read_u32(buffer, offset) << 32)
 
 
+def read_ulong(buffer, offset):
+    if get_long_type().sizeof == 8:
+        return read_u64(buffer, offset)
+    else:
+        return read_u32(buffer, offset)
+
+
 target_arch = None