debug: add end-of-oops marker

Right now it's nearly impossible for parsers that collect kernel crashes
from logs or emails (such as to detect the
end-of-oops condition. In addition, it's not currently possible to
detect whether or not 2 oopses that look alike are actually the same
oops reported twice, or are truly two unique oopses.

This patch adds an end-of-oops marker, and makes the end marker include
a very simple 64-bit random ID to be able to detect duplicate reports.

Normally, this ID is calculated as a late_initcall() (in the hope that
at that time there is enough entropy to get a unique enough ID); however
for early oopses the oops_exit() function needs to generate the ID on
the fly.

We do this all at the _end_ of an oops printout, so this does not impact
our ability to get the most important portions of a crash out to the
console first.

[ Sidenote: the already existing oopses-since-bootup counter we print
  during crashes serves as the differentiator between multiple oopses
  that trigger during the same bootup. ]

Tested on 32-bit and 64-bit x86. Artificially injected very early
crashes as well, as expected they result in this constant ID after
multiple bootups:

  ---[ end trace ca143223eefdc828 ]---
  ---[ end trace ca143223eefdc828 ]---

because the random pools are still all zero. But it all still works
fine and causes no additional problems (which is the main goal of
instrumentation code).

Signed-off-by: Arjan van de Ven <>
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
diff --git a/kernel/panic.c b/kernel/panic.c
index 6f6e03e..da4d6ba 100644
--- a/kernel/panic.c
+++ b/kernel/panic.c
@@ -19,6 +19,7 @@
 #include <linux/nmi.h>
 #include <linux/kexec.h>
 #include <linux/debug_locks.h>
+#include <linux/random.h>
 int panic_on_oops;
 int tainted;
@@ -266,12 +267,29 @@
+ * 64-bit random ID for oopses:
+ */
+static u64 oops_id;
+static int init_oops_id(void)
+	if (!oops_id)
+		get_random_bytes(&oops_id, sizeof(oops_id));
+	return 0;
  * Called when the architecture exits its oops handler, after printing
  * everything.
 void oops_exit(void)
+	init_oops_id();
+	printk(KERN_WARNING "---[ end trace %016llx ]---\n",
+		(unsigned long long)oops_id);