mm/migrate: optimize hotplug-time demotion order updates

Patch series "mm/migrate: 5.15 fixes for automatic demotion", v2.

This contains two fixes for the "automatic demotion" code which was
merged into 5.15:

 * Fix memory hotplug performance regression by watching
   suppressing any real action on irrelevant hotplug events.

 * Ensure CPU hotplug handler is registered when memory hotplug
   is disabled.

This patch (of 2):

== tl;dr ==

Automatic demotion opted for a simple, lazy approach to handling hotplug
events.  This noticeably slows down memory hotplug[1].  Optimize away
updates to the demotion order when memory hotplug events should have no

This has no effect on CPU hotplug.  There is no known problem on the CPU
side and any work there will be in a separate series.

== Background ==

Automatic demotion is a memory migration strategy to ensure that new
allocations have room in faster memory tiers on tiered memory systems.
The kernel maintains an array (node_demotion[]) to drive these

The node_demotion[] path is calculated by starting at nodes with CPUs
and then "walking" to nodes with memory.  Only hotplug events which
online or offline a node with memory (N_ONLINE) or CPUs (N_CPU) will
actually affect the migration order.

== Problem ==

However, the current code is lazy.  It completely regenerates the
migration order on *any* CPU or memory hotplug event.  The logic was
that these events are extremely rare and that the overhead from
indiscriminate order regeneration is minimal.

Part of the update logic involves a synchronize_rcu(), which is a pretty
big hammer.  Its overhead was large enough to be detected by some 0day
tests that watch memory hotplug performance[1].

== Solution ==

Add a new helper (node_demotion_topo_changed()) which can differentiate
between superfluous and impactful hotplug events.  Skip the expensive
update operation for superfluous events.

== Aside: Locking ==

It took me a few moments to declare the locking to be safe enough for
node_demotion_topo_changed() to work.  It all hinges on the memory
hotplug lock:

During memory hotplug events, 'mem_hotplug_lock' is held for write.
This ensures that two memory hotplug events can not be called

CPU hotplug has a similar lock (cpuhp_state_mutex) which also provides
mutual exclusion between CPU hotplug events.  In addition, the demotion
code acquire and hold the mem_hotplug_lock for read during its CPU
hotplug handlers.  This provides mutual exclusion between the demotion
memory hotplug callbacks and the CPU hotplug callbacks.

This effectively allows treating the migration target generation code to
act as if it is single-threaded.


Fixes: 884a6e5d1f93 ("mm/migrate: update node demotion order on hotplug events")
Signed-off-by: Dave Hansen <>
Reported-by: kernel test robot <>
Reviewed-by: David Hildenbrand <>
Cc: "Huang, Ying" <>
Cc: Michal Hocko <>
Cc: Wei Xu <>
Cc: Oscar Salvador <>
Cc: David Rientjes <>
Cc: Dan Williams <>
Cc: Greg Thelen <>
Cc: Yang Shi <>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
1 file changed