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// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only
/*
* mm/page-writeback.c
*
* Copyright (C) 2002, Linus Torvalds.
* Copyright (C) 2007 Red Hat, Inc., Peter Zijlstra
*
* Contains functions related to writing back dirty pages at the
* address_space level.
*
* 10Apr2002 Andrew Morton
* Initial version
*/
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/export.h>
#include <linux/spinlock.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
#include <linux/task_io_accounting_ops.h>
#include <linux/blkdev.h>
#include <linux/mpage.h>
#include <linux/rmap.h>
#include <linux/percpu.h>
#include <linux/smp.h>
#include <linux/sysctl.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/syscalls.h>
#include <linux/pagevec.h>
#include <linux/timer.h>
#include <linux/sched/rt.h>
#include <linux/sched/signal.h>
#include <linux/mm_inline.h>
#include <trace/events/writeback.h>
#include "internal.h"
/*
* Sleep at most 200ms at a time in balance_dirty_pages().
*/
#define MAX_PAUSE max(HZ/5, 1)
/*
* Try to keep balance_dirty_pages() call intervals higher than this many pages
* by raising pause time to max_pause when falls below it.
*/
#define DIRTY_POLL_THRESH (128 >> (PAGE_SHIFT - 10))
/*
* Estimate write bandwidth at 200ms intervals.
*/
#define BANDWIDTH_INTERVAL max(HZ/5, 1)
#define RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT 10
/*
* After a CPU has dirtied this many pages, balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited
* will look to see if it needs to force writeback or throttling.
*/
static long ratelimit_pages = 32;
/* The following parameters are exported via /proc/sys/vm */
/*
* Start background writeback (via writeback threads) at this percentage
*/
int dirty_background_ratio = 10;
/*
* dirty_background_bytes starts at 0 (disabled) so that it is a function of
* dirty_background_ratio * the amount of dirtyable memory
*/
unsigned long dirty_background_bytes;
/*
* free highmem will not be subtracted from the total free memory
* for calculating free ratios if vm_highmem_is_dirtyable is true
*/
int vm_highmem_is_dirtyable;
/*
* The generator of dirty data starts writeback at this percentage
*/
int vm_dirty_ratio = 20;
/*
* vm_dirty_bytes starts at 0 (disabled) so that it is a function of
* vm_dirty_ratio * the amount of dirtyable memory
*/
unsigned long vm_dirty_bytes;
/*
* The interval between `kupdate'-style writebacks
*/
unsigned int dirty_writeback_interval = 5 * 100; /* centiseconds */
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(dirty_writeback_interval);
/*
* The longest time for which data is allowed to remain dirty
*/
unsigned int dirty_expire_interval = 30 * 100; /* centiseconds */
/*
* Flag that puts the machine in "laptop mode". Doubles as a timeout in jiffies:
* a full sync is triggered after this time elapses without any disk activity.
*/
int laptop_mode;
EXPORT_SYMBOL(laptop_mode);
/* End of sysctl-exported parameters */
struct wb_domain global_wb_domain;
/* consolidated parameters for balance_dirty_pages() and its subroutines */
struct dirty_throttle_control {
#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_WRITEBACK
struct wb_domain *dom;
struct dirty_throttle_control *gdtc; /* only set in memcg dtc's */
#endif
struct bdi_writeback *wb;
struct fprop_local_percpu *wb_completions;
unsigned long avail; /* dirtyable */
unsigned long dirty; /* file_dirty + write + nfs */
unsigned long thresh; /* dirty threshold */
unsigned long bg_thresh; /* dirty background threshold */
unsigned long wb_dirty; /* per-wb counterparts */
unsigned long wb_thresh;
unsigned long wb_bg_thresh;
unsigned long pos_ratio;
};
/*
* Length of period for aging writeout fractions of bdis. This is an
* arbitrarily chosen number. The longer the period, the slower fractions will
* reflect changes in current writeout rate.
*/
#define VM_COMPLETIONS_PERIOD_LEN (3*HZ)
#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_WRITEBACK
#define GDTC_INIT(__wb) .wb = (__wb), \
.dom = &global_wb_domain, \
.wb_completions = &(__wb)->completions
#define GDTC_INIT_NO_WB .dom = &global_wb_domain
#define MDTC_INIT(__wb, __gdtc) .wb = (__wb), \
.dom = mem_cgroup_wb_domain(__wb), \
.wb_completions = &(__wb)->memcg_completions, \
.gdtc = __gdtc
static bool mdtc_valid(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc)
{
return dtc->dom;
}
static struct wb_domain *dtc_dom(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc)
{
return dtc->dom;
}
static struct dirty_throttle_control *mdtc_gdtc(struct dirty_throttle_control *mdtc)
{
return mdtc->gdtc;
}
static struct fprop_local_percpu *wb_memcg_completions(struct bdi_writeback *wb)
{
return &wb->memcg_completions;
}
static void wb_min_max_ratio(struct bdi_writeback *wb,
unsigned long *minp, unsigned long *maxp)
{
unsigned long this_bw = READ_ONCE(wb->avg_write_bandwidth);
unsigned long tot_bw = atomic_long_read(&wb->bdi->tot_write_bandwidth);
unsigned long long min = wb->bdi->min_ratio;
unsigned long long max = wb->bdi->max_ratio;
/*
* @wb may already be clean by the time control reaches here and
* the total may not include its bw.
*/
if (this_bw < tot_bw) {
if (min) {
min *= this_bw;
min = div64_ul(min, tot_bw);
}
if (max < 100) {
max *= this_bw;
max = div64_ul(max, tot_bw);
}
}
*minp = min;
*maxp = max;
}
#else /* CONFIG_CGROUP_WRITEBACK */
#define GDTC_INIT(__wb) .wb = (__wb), \
.wb_completions = &(__wb)->completions
#define GDTC_INIT_NO_WB
#define MDTC_INIT(__wb, __gdtc)
static bool mdtc_valid(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc)
{
return false;
}
static struct wb_domain *dtc_dom(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc)
{
return &global_wb_domain;
}
static struct dirty_throttle_control *mdtc_gdtc(struct dirty_throttle_control *mdtc)
{
return NULL;
}
static struct fprop_local_percpu *wb_memcg_completions(struct bdi_writeback *wb)
{
return NULL;
}
static void wb_min_max_ratio(struct bdi_writeback *wb,
unsigned long *minp, unsigned long *maxp)
{
*minp = wb->bdi->min_ratio;
*maxp = wb->bdi->max_ratio;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_CGROUP_WRITEBACK */
/*
* In a memory zone, there is a certain amount of pages we consider
* available for the page cache, which is essentially the number of
* free and reclaimable pages, minus some zone reserves to protect
* lowmem and the ability to uphold the zone's watermarks without
* requiring writeback.
*
* This number of dirtyable pages is the base value of which the
* user-configurable dirty ratio is the effective number of pages that
* are allowed to be actually dirtied. Per individual zone, or
* globally by using the sum of dirtyable pages over all zones.
*
* Because the user is allowed to specify the dirty limit globally as
* absolute number of bytes, calculating the per-zone dirty limit can
* require translating the configured limit into a percentage of
* global dirtyable memory first.
*/
/**
* node_dirtyable_memory - number of dirtyable pages in a node
* @pgdat: the node
*
* Return: the node's number of pages potentially available for dirty
* page cache. This is the base value for the per-node dirty limits.
*/
static unsigned long node_dirtyable_memory(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
{
unsigned long nr_pages = 0;
int z;
for (z = 0; z < MAX_NR_ZONES; z++) {
struct zone *zone = pgdat->node_zones + z;
if (!populated_zone(zone))
continue;
nr_pages += zone_page_state(zone, NR_FREE_PAGES);
}
/*
* Pages reserved for the kernel should not be considered
* dirtyable, to prevent a situation where reclaim has to
* clean pages in order to balance the zones.
*/
nr_pages -= min(nr_pages, pgdat->totalreserve_pages);
nr_pages += node_page_state(pgdat, NR_INACTIVE_FILE);
nr_pages += node_page_state(pgdat, NR_ACTIVE_FILE);
return nr_pages;
}
static unsigned long highmem_dirtyable_memory(unsigned long total)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
int node;
unsigned long x = 0;
int i;
for_each_node_state(node, N_HIGH_MEMORY) {
for (i = ZONE_NORMAL + 1; i < MAX_NR_ZONES; i++) {
struct zone *z;
unsigned long nr_pages;
if (!is_highmem_idx(i))
continue;
z = &NODE_DATA(node)->node_zones[i];
if (!populated_zone(z))
continue;
nr_pages = zone_page_state(z, NR_FREE_PAGES);
/* watch for underflows */
nr_pages -= min(nr_pages, high_wmark_pages(z));
nr_pages += zone_page_state(z, NR_ZONE_INACTIVE_FILE);
nr_pages += zone_page_state(z, NR_ZONE_ACTIVE_FILE);
x += nr_pages;
}
}
/*
* Unreclaimable memory (kernel memory or anonymous memory
* without swap) can bring down the dirtyable pages below
* the zone's dirty balance reserve and the above calculation
* will underflow. However we still want to add in nodes
* which are below threshold (negative values) to get a more
* accurate calculation but make sure that the total never
* underflows.
*/
if ((long)x < 0)
x = 0;
/*
* Make sure that the number of highmem pages is never larger
* than the number of the total dirtyable memory. This can only
* occur in very strange VM situations but we want to make sure
* that this does not occur.
*/
return min(x, total);
#else
return 0;
#endif
}
/**
* global_dirtyable_memory - number of globally dirtyable pages
*
* Return: the global number of pages potentially available for dirty
* page cache. This is the base value for the global dirty limits.
*/
static unsigned long global_dirtyable_memory(void)
{
unsigned long x;
x = global_zone_page_state(NR_FREE_PAGES);
/*
* Pages reserved for the kernel should not be considered
* dirtyable, to prevent a situation where reclaim has to
* clean pages in order to balance the zones.
*/
x -= min(x, totalreserve_pages);
x += global_node_page_state(NR_INACTIVE_FILE);
x += global_node_page_state(NR_ACTIVE_FILE);
if (!vm_highmem_is_dirtyable)
x -= highmem_dirtyable_memory(x);
return x + 1; /* Ensure that we never return 0 */
}
/**
* domain_dirty_limits - calculate thresh and bg_thresh for a wb_domain
* @dtc: dirty_throttle_control of interest
*
* Calculate @dtc->thresh and ->bg_thresh considering
* vm_dirty_{bytes|ratio} and dirty_background_{bytes|ratio}. The caller
* must ensure that @dtc->avail is set before calling this function. The
* dirty limits will be lifted by 1/4 for real-time tasks.
*/
static void domain_dirty_limits(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc)
{
const unsigned long available_memory = dtc->avail;
struct dirty_throttle_control *gdtc = mdtc_gdtc(dtc);
unsigned long bytes = vm_dirty_bytes;
unsigned long bg_bytes = dirty_background_bytes;
/* convert ratios to per-PAGE_SIZE for higher precision */
unsigned long ratio = (vm_dirty_ratio * PAGE_SIZE) / 100;
unsigned long bg_ratio = (dirty_background_ratio * PAGE_SIZE) / 100;
unsigned long thresh;
unsigned long bg_thresh;
struct task_struct *tsk;
/* gdtc is !NULL iff @dtc is for memcg domain */
if (gdtc) {
unsigned long global_avail = gdtc->avail;
/*
* The byte settings can't be applied directly to memcg
* domains. Convert them to ratios by scaling against
* globally available memory. As the ratios are in
* per-PAGE_SIZE, they can be obtained by dividing bytes by
* number of pages.
*/
if (bytes)
ratio = min(DIV_ROUND_UP(bytes, global_avail),
PAGE_SIZE);
if (bg_bytes)
bg_ratio = min(DIV_ROUND_UP(bg_bytes, global_avail),
PAGE_SIZE);
bytes = bg_bytes = 0;
}
if (bytes)
thresh = DIV_ROUND_UP(bytes, PAGE_SIZE);
else
thresh = (ratio * available_memory) / PAGE_SIZE;
if (bg_bytes)
bg_thresh = DIV_ROUND_UP(bg_bytes, PAGE_SIZE);
else
bg_thresh = (bg_ratio * available_memory) / PAGE_SIZE;
if (bg_thresh >= thresh)
bg_thresh = thresh / 2;
tsk = current;
if (rt_task(tsk)) {
bg_thresh += bg_thresh / 4 + global_wb_domain.dirty_limit / 32;
thresh += thresh / 4 + global_wb_domain.dirty_limit / 32;
}
dtc->thresh = thresh;
dtc->bg_thresh = bg_thresh;
/* we should eventually report the domain in the TP */
if (!gdtc)
trace_global_dirty_state(bg_thresh, thresh);
}
/**
* global_dirty_limits - background-writeback and dirty-throttling thresholds
* @pbackground: out parameter for bg_thresh
* @pdirty: out parameter for thresh
*
* Calculate bg_thresh and thresh for global_wb_domain. See
* domain_dirty_limits() for details.
*/
void global_dirty_limits(unsigned long *pbackground, unsigned long *pdirty)
{
struct dirty_throttle_control gdtc = { GDTC_INIT_NO_WB };
gdtc.avail = global_dirtyable_memory();
domain_dirty_limits(&gdtc);
*pbackground = gdtc.bg_thresh;
*pdirty = gdtc.thresh;
}
/**
* node_dirty_limit - maximum number of dirty pages allowed in a node
* @pgdat: the node
*
* Return: the maximum number of dirty pages allowed in a node, based
* on the node's dirtyable memory.
*/
static unsigned long node_dirty_limit(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
{
unsigned long node_memory = node_dirtyable_memory(pgdat);
struct task_struct *tsk = current;
unsigned long dirty;
if (vm_dirty_bytes)
dirty = DIV_ROUND_UP(vm_dirty_bytes, PAGE_SIZE) *
node_memory / global_dirtyable_memory();
else
dirty = vm_dirty_ratio * node_memory / 100;
if (rt_task(tsk))
dirty += dirty / 4;
return dirty;
}
/**
* node_dirty_ok - tells whether a node is within its dirty limits
* @pgdat: the node to check
*
* Return: %true when the dirty pages in @pgdat are within the node's
* dirty limit, %false if the limit is exceeded.
*/
bool node_dirty_ok(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
{
unsigned long limit = node_dirty_limit(pgdat);
unsigned long nr_pages = 0;
nr_pages += node_page_state(pgdat, NR_FILE_DIRTY);
nr_pages += node_page_state(pgdat, NR_WRITEBACK);
return nr_pages <= limit;
}
int dirty_background_ratio_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
{
int ret;
ret = proc_dointvec_minmax(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
if (ret == 0 && write)
dirty_background_bytes = 0;
return ret;
}
int dirty_background_bytes_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
{
int ret;
ret = proc_doulongvec_minmax(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
if (ret == 0 && write)
dirty_background_ratio = 0;
return ret;
}
int dirty_ratio_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer,
size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
{
int old_ratio = vm_dirty_ratio;
int ret;
ret = proc_dointvec_minmax(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
if (ret == 0 && write && vm_dirty_ratio != old_ratio) {
writeback_set_ratelimit();
vm_dirty_bytes = 0;
}
return ret;
}
int dirty_bytes_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
{
unsigned long old_bytes = vm_dirty_bytes;
int ret;
ret = proc_doulongvec_minmax(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
if (ret == 0 && write && vm_dirty_bytes != old_bytes) {
writeback_set_ratelimit();
vm_dirty_ratio = 0;
}
return ret;
}
static unsigned long wp_next_time(unsigned long cur_time)
{
cur_time += VM_COMPLETIONS_PERIOD_LEN;
/* 0 has a special meaning... */
if (!cur_time)
return 1;
return cur_time;
}
static void wb_domain_writeout_add(struct wb_domain *dom,
struct fprop_local_percpu *completions,
unsigned int max_prop_frac, long nr)
{
__fprop_add_percpu_max(&dom->completions, completions,
max_prop_frac, nr);
/* First event after period switching was turned off? */
if (unlikely(!dom->period_time)) {
/*
* We can race with other __bdi_writeout_inc calls here but
* it does not cause any harm since the resulting time when
* timer will fire and what is in writeout_period_time will be
* roughly the same.
*/
dom->period_time = wp_next_time(jiffies);
mod_timer(&dom->period_timer, dom->period_time);
}
}
/*
* Increment @wb's writeout completion count and the global writeout
* completion count. Called from __folio_end_writeback().
*/
static inline void __wb_writeout_add(struct bdi_writeback *wb, long nr)
{
struct wb_domain *cgdom;
wb_stat_mod(wb, WB_WRITTEN, nr);
wb_domain_writeout_add(&global_wb_domain, &wb->completions,
wb->bdi->max_prop_frac, nr);
cgdom = mem_cgroup_wb_domain(wb);
if (cgdom)
wb_domain_writeout_add(cgdom, wb_memcg_completions(wb),
wb->bdi->max_prop_frac, nr);
}
void wb_writeout_inc(struct bdi_writeback *wb)
{
unsigned long flags;
local_irq_save(flags);
__wb_writeout_add(wb, 1);
local_irq_restore(flags);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(wb_writeout_inc);
/*
* On idle system, we can be called long after we scheduled because we use
* deferred timers so count with missed periods.
*/
static void writeout_period(struct timer_list *t)
{
struct wb_domain *dom = from_timer(dom, t, period_timer);
int miss_periods = (jiffies - dom->period_time) /
VM_COMPLETIONS_PERIOD_LEN;
if (fprop_new_period(&dom->completions, miss_periods + 1)) {
dom->period_time = wp_next_time(dom->period_time +
miss_periods * VM_COMPLETIONS_PERIOD_LEN);
mod_timer(&dom->period_timer, dom->period_time);
} else {
/*
* Aging has zeroed all fractions. Stop wasting CPU on period
* updates.
*/
dom->period_time = 0;
}
}
int wb_domain_init(struct wb_domain *dom, gfp_t gfp)
{
memset(dom, 0, sizeof(*dom));
spin_lock_init(&dom->lock);
timer_setup(&dom->period_timer, writeout_period, TIMER_DEFERRABLE);
dom->dirty_limit_tstamp = jiffies;
return fprop_global_init(&dom->completions, gfp);
}
#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_WRITEBACK
void wb_domain_exit(struct wb_domain *dom)
{
del_timer_sync(&dom->period_timer);
fprop_global_destroy(&dom->completions);
}
#endif
/*
* bdi_min_ratio keeps the sum of the minimum dirty shares of all
* registered backing devices, which, for obvious reasons, can not
* exceed 100%.
*/
static unsigned int bdi_min_ratio;
int bdi_set_min_ratio(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, unsigned int min_ratio)
{
int ret = 0;
spin_lock_bh(&bdi_lock);
if (min_ratio > bdi->max_ratio) {
ret = -EINVAL;
} else {
min_ratio -= bdi->min_ratio;
if (bdi_min_ratio + min_ratio < 100) {
bdi_min_ratio += min_ratio;
bdi->min_ratio += min_ratio;
} else {
ret = -EINVAL;
}
}
spin_unlock_bh(&bdi_lock);
return ret;
}
int bdi_set_max_ratio(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, unsigned max_ratio)
{
int ret = 0;
if (max_ratio > 100)
return -EINVAL;
spin_lock_bh(&bdi_lock);
if (bdi->min_ratio > max_ratio) {
ret = -EINVAL;
} else {
bdi->max_ratio = max_ratio;
bdi->max_prop_frac = (FPROP_FRAC_BASE * max_ratio) / 100;
}
spin_unlock_bh(&bdi_lock);
return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdi_set_max_ratio);
static unsigned long dirty_freerun_ceiling(unsigned long thresh,
unsigned long bg_thresh)
{
return (thresh + bg_thresh) / 2;
}
static unsigned long hard_dirty_limit(struct wb_domain *dom,
unsigned long thresh)
{
return max(thresh, dom->dirty_limit);
}
/*
* Memory which can be further allocated to a memcg domain is capped by
* system-wide clean memory excluding the amount being used in the domain.
*/
static void mdtc_calc_avail(struct dirty_throttle_control *mdtc,
unsigned long filepages, unsigned long headroom)
{
struct dirty_throttle_control *gdtc = mdtc_gdtc(mdtc);
unsigned long clean = filepages - min(filepages, mdtc->dirty);
unsigned long global_clean = gdtc->avail - min(gdtc->avail, gdtc->dirty);
unsigned long other_clean = global_clean - min(global_clean, clean);
mdtc->avail = filepages + min(headroom, other_clean);
}
/**
* __wb_calc_thresh - @wb's share of dirty throttling threshold
* @dtc: dirty_throttle_context of interest
*
* Note that balance_dirty_pages() will only seriously take it as a hard limit
* when sleeping max_pause per page is not enough to keep the dirty pages under
* control. For example, when the device is completely stalled due to some error
* conditions, or when there are 1000 dd tasks writing to a slow 10MB/s USB key.
* In the other normal situations, it acts more gently by throttling the tasks
* more (rather than completely block them) when the wb dirty pages go high.
*
* It allocates high/low dirty limits to fast/slow devices, in order to prevent
* - starving fast devices
* - piling up dirty pages (that will take long time to sync) on slow devices
*
* The wb's share of dirty limit will be adapting to its throughput and
* bounded by the bdi->min_ratio and/or bdi->max_ratio parameters, if set.
*
* Return: @wb's dirty limit in pages. The term "dirty" in the context of
* dirty balancing includes all PG_dirty and PG_writeback pages.
*/
static unsigned long __wb_calc_thresh(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc)
{
struct wb_domain *dom = dtc_dom(dtc);
unsigned long thresh = dtc->thresh;
u64 wb_thresh;
unsigned long numerator, denominator;
unsigned long wb_min_ratio, wb_max_ratio;
/*
* Calculate this BDI's share of the thresh ratio.
*/
fprop_fraction_percpu(&dom->completions, dtc->wb_completions,
&numerator, &denominator);
wb_thresh = (thresh * (100 - bdi_min_ratio)) / 100;
wb_thresh *= numerator;
wb_thresh = div64_ul(wb_thresh, denominator);
wb_min_max_ratio(dtc->wb, &wb_min_ratio, &wb_max_ratio);
wb_thresh += (thresh * wb_min_ratio) / 100;
if (wb_thresh > (thresh * wb_max_ratio) / 100)
wb_thresh = thresh * wb_max_ratio / 100;
return wb_thresh;
}
unsigned long wb_calc_thresh(struct bdi_writeback *wb, unsigned long thresh)
{
struct dirty_throttle_control gdtc = { GDTC_INIT(wb),
.thresh = thresh };
return __wb_calc_thresh(&gdtc);
}
/*
* setpoint - dirty 3
* f(dirty) := 1.0 + (----------------)
* limit - setpoint
*
* it's a 3rd order polynomial that subjects to
*
* (1) f(freerun) = 2.0 => rampup dirty_ratelimit reasonably fast
* (2) f(setpoint) = 1.0 => the balance point
* (3) f(limit) = 0 => the hard limit
* (4) df/dx <= 0 => negative feedback control
* (5) the closer to setpoint, the smaller |df/dx| (and the reverse)
* => fast response on large errors; small oscillation near setpoint
*/
static long long pos_ratio_polynom(unsigned long setpoint,
unsigned long dirty,
unsigned long limit)
{
long long pos_ratio;
long x;
x = div64_s64(((s64)setpoint - (s64)dirty) << RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT,
(limit - setpoint) | 1);
pos_ratio = x;
pos_ratio = pos_ratio * x >> RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT;
pos_ratio = pos_ratio * x >> RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT;
pos_ratio += 1 << RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT;
return clamp(pos_ratio, 0LL, 2LL << RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT);
}
/*
* Dirty position control.
*
* (o) global/bdi setpoints
*
* We want the dirty pages be balanced around the global/wb setpoints.
* When the number of dirty pages is higher/lower than the setpoint, the
* dirty position control ratio (and hence task dirty ratelimit) will be
* decreased/increased to bring the dirty pages back to the setpoint.
*
* pos_ratio = 1 << RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT
*
* if (dirty < setpoint) scale up pos_ratio
* if (dirty > setpoint) scale down pos_ratio
*
* if (wb_dirty < wb_setpoint) scale up pos_ratio
* if (wb_dirty > wb_setpoint) scale down pos_ratio
*
* task_ratelimit = dirty_ratelimit * pos_ratio >> RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT
*
* (o) global control line
*
* ^ pos_ratio
* |
* | |<===== global dirty control scope ======>|
* 2.0 * * * * * * *
* | .*
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* 1.0 ................................*
* | . . *
* | . . *
* | . . *
* | . . *
* | . . *
* 0 +------------.------------------.----------------------*------------->
* freerun^ setpoint^ limit^ dirty pages
*
* (o) wb control line
*
* ^ pos_ratio
* |
* | *
* | *
* | *
* | *
* | * |<=========== span ============>|
* 1.0 .......................*
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* | . *
* 1/4 ...............................................* * * * * * * * * * * *
* | . .
* | . .
* | . .
* 0 +----------------------.-------------------------------.------------->
* wb_setpoint^ x_intercept^
*
* The wb control line won't drop below pos_ratio=1/4, so that wb_dirty can
* be smoothly throttled down to normal if it starts high in situations like
* - start writing to a slow SD card and a fast disk at the same time. The SD
* card's wb_dirty may rush to many times higher than wb_setpoint.
* - the wb dirty thresh drops quickly due to change of JBOD workload
*/
static void wb_position_ratio(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc)
{
struct bdi_writeback *wb = dtc->wb;
unsigned long write_bw = READ_ONCE(wb->avg_write_bandwidth);
unsigned long freerun = dirty_freerun_ceiling(dtc->thresh, dtc->bg_thresh);
unsigned long limit = hard_dirty_limit(dtc_dom(dtc), dtc->thresh);
unsigned long wb_thresh = dtc->wb_thresh;
unsigned long x_intercept;
unsigned long setpoint; /* dirty pages' target balance point */
unsigned long wb_setpoint;
unsigned long span;
long long pos_ratio; /* for scaling up/down the rate limit */
long x;
dtc->pos_ratio = 0;
if (unlikely(dtc->dirty >= limit))
return;
/*
* global setpoint
*
* See comment for pos_ratio_polynom().
*/
setpoint = (freerun + limit) / 2;
pos_ratio = pos_ratio_polynom(setpoint, dtc->dirty, limit);
/*
* The strictlimit feature is a tool preventing mistrusted filesystems
* from growing a large number of dirty pages before throttling. For
* such filesystems balance_dirty_pages always checks wb counters
* against wb limits. Even if global "nr_dirty" is under "freerun".
* This is especially important for fuse which sets bdi->max_ratio to
* 1% by default. Without strictlimit feature, fuse writeback may
* consume arbitrary amount of RAM because it is accounted in
* NR_WRITEBACK_TEMP which is not involved in calculating "nr_dirty".
*
* Here, in wb_position_ratio(), we calculate pos_ratio based on
* two values: wb_dirty and wb_thresh. Let's consider an example:
* total amount of RAM is 16GB, bdi->max_ratio is equal to 1%, global
* limits are set by default to 10% and 20% (background and throttle).
* Then wb_thresh is 1% of 20% of 16GB. This amounts to ~8K pages.
* wb_calc_thresh(wb, bg_thresh) is about ~4K pages. wb_setpoint is
* about ~6K pages (as the average of background and throttle wb
* limits). The 3rd order polynomial will provide positive feedback if
* wb_dirty is under wb_setpoint and vice versa.
*
* Note, that we cannot use global counters in these calculations
* because we want to throttle process writing to a strictlimit wb
* much earlier than global "freerun" is reached (~23MB vs. ~2.3GB
* in the example above).
*/
if (unlikely(wb->bdi->capabilities & BDI_CAP_STRICTLIMIT)) {
long long wb_pos_ratio;
if (dtc->wb_dirty < 8) {
dtc->pos_ratio = min_t(long long, pos_ratio * 2,
2 << RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT);
return;
}
if (dtc->wb_dirty >= wb_thresh)
return;
wb_setpoint = dirty_freerun_ceiling(wb_thresh,
dtc->wb_bg_thresh);
if (wb_setpoint == 0 || wb_setpoint == wb_thresh)
return;
wb_pos_ratio = pos_ratio_polynom(wb_setpoint, dtc->wb_dirty,
wb_thresh);
/*
* Typically, for strictlimit case, wb_setpoint << setpoint
* and pos_ratio >> wb_pos_ratio. In the other words global
* state ("dirty") is not limiting factor and we have to
* make decision based on wb counters. But there is an
* important case when global pos_ratio should get precedence:
* global limits are exceeded (e.g. due to activities on other
* wb's) while given strictlimit wb is below limit.
*
* "pos_ratio * wb_pos_ratio" would work for the case above,
* but it would look too non-natural for the case of all
* activity in the system coming from a single strictlimit wb
* with bdi->max_ratio == 100%.
*
* Note that min() below somewhat changes the dynamics of the
* control system. Normally, pos_ratio value can be well over 3
* (when globally we are at freerun and wb is well below wb
* setpoint). Now the maximum pos_ratio in the same situation
* is 2. We might want to tweak this if we observe the control
* system is too slow to adapt.
*/
dtc->pos_ratio = min(pos_ratio, wb_pos_ratio);
return;
}
/*
* We have computed basic pos_ratio above based on global situation. If
* the wb is over/under its share of dirty pages, we want to scale
* pos_ratio further down/up. That is done by the following mechanism.
*/
/*
* wb setpoint
*
* f(wb_dirty) := 1.0 + k * (wb_dirty - wb_setpoint)
*
* x_intercept - wb_dirty
* := --------------------------
* x_intercept - wb_setpoint
*
* The main wb control line is a linear function that subjects to
*
* (1) f(wb_setpoint) = 1.0
* (2) k = - 1 / (8 * write_bw) (in single wb case)
* or equally: x_intercept = wb_setpoint + 8 * write_bw
*
* For single wb case, the dirty pages are observed to fluctuate
* regularly within range
* [wb_setpoint - write_bw/2, wb_setpoint + write_bw/2]
* for various filesystems, where (2) can yield in a reasonable 12.5%
* fluctuation range for pos_ratio.
*
* For JBOD case, wb_thresh (not wb_dirty!) could fluctuate up to its
* own size, so move the slope over accordingly and choose a slope that
* yields 100% pos_ratio fluctuation on suddenly doubled wb_thresh.
*/
if (unlikely(wb_thresh > dtc->thresh))
wb_thresh = dtc->thresh;
/*
* It's very possible that wb_thresh is close to 0 not because the
* device is slow, but that it has remained inactive for long time.
* Honour such devices a reasonable good (hopefully IO efficient)
* threshold, so that the occasional writes won't be blocked and active
* writes can rampup the threshold quickly.
*/
wb_thresh = max(wb_thresh, (limit - dtc->dirty) / 8);
/*
* scale global setpoint to wb's:
* wb_setpoint = setpoint * wb_thresh / thresh
*/
x = div_u64((u64)wb_thresh << 16, dtc->thresh | 1);
wb_setpoint = setpoint * (u64)x >> 16;
/*
* Use span=(8*write_bw) in single wb case as indicated by
* (thresh - wb_thresh ~= 0) and transit to wb_thresh in JBOD case.
*
* wb_thresh thresh - wb_thresh
* span = --------- * (8 * write_bw) + ------------------ * wb_thresh
* thresh thresh
*/
span = (dtc->thresh - wb_thresh + 8 * write_bw) * (u64)x >> 16;
x_intercept = wb_setpoint + span;
if (dtc->wb_dirty < x_intercept - span / 4) {
pos_ratio = div64_u64(pos_ratio * (x_intercept - dtc->wb_dirty),
(x_intercept - wb_setpoint) | 1);
} else
pos_ratio /= 4;
/*
* wb reserve area, safeguard against dirty pool underrun and disk idle
* It may push the desired control point of global dirty pages higher
* than setpoint.
*/
x_intercept = wb_thresh / 2;
if (dtc->wb_dirty < x_intercept) {
if (dtc->wb_dirty > x_intercept / 8)
pos_ratio = div_u64(pos_ratio * x_intercept,
dtc->wb_dirty);
else
pos_ratio *= 8;
}
dtc->pos_ratio = pos_ratio;
}
static void wb_update_write_bandwidth(struct bdi_writeback *wb,
unsigned long elapsed,
unsigned long written)
{
const unsigned long period = roundup_pow_of_two(3 * HZ);
unsigned long avg = wb->avg_write_bandwidth;
unsigned long old = wb->write_bandwidth;
u64 bw;
/*
* bw = written * HZ / elapsed
*
* bw * elapsed + write_bandwidth * (period - elapsed)
* write_bandwidth = ---------------------------------------------------
* period
*
* @written may have decreased due to folio_account_redirty().
* Avoid underflowing @bw calculation.
*/
bw = written - min(written, wb->written_stamp);
bw *= HZ;
if (unlikely(elapsed > period)) {
bw = div64_ul(bw, elapsed);
avg = bw;
goto out;
}
bw += (u64)wb->write_bandwidth * (period - elapsed);
bw >>= ilog2(period);
/*
* one more level of smoothing, for filtering out sudden spikes
*/
if (avg > old && old >= (unsigned long)bw)
avg -= (avg - old) >> 3;
if (avg < old && old <= (unsigned long)bw)
avg += (old - avg) >> 3;
out:
/* keep avg > 0 to guarantee that tot > 0 if there are dirty wbs */
avg = max(avg, 1LU);
if (wb_has_dirty_io(wb)) {
long delta = avg - wb->avg_write_bandwidth;
WARN_ON_ONCE(atomic_long_add_return(delta,
&wb->bdi->tot_write_bandwidth) <= 0);
}
wb->write_bandwidth = bw;
WRITE_ONCE(wb->avg_write_bandwidth, avg);
}
static void update_dirty_limit(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc)
{
struct wb_domain *dom = dtc_dom(dtc);
unsigned long thresh = dtc->thresh;
unsigned long limit = dom->dirty_limit;
/*
* Follow up in one step.
*/
if (limit < thresh) {
limit = thresh;
goto update;
}
/*
* Follow down slowly. Use the higher one as the target, because thresh
* may drop below dirty. This is exactly the reason to introduce
* dom->dirty_limit which is guaranteed to lie above the dirty pages.
*/
thresh = max(thresh, dtc->dirty);
if (limit > thresh) {
limit -= (limit - thresh) >> 5;
goto update;
}
return;
update:
dom->dirty_limit = limit;
}
static void domain_update_dirty_limit(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc,
unsigned long now)
{
struct wb_domain *dom = dtc_dom(dtc);
/*
* check locklessly first to optimize away locking for the most time
*/
if (time_before(now, dom->dirty_limit_tstamp + BANDWIDTH_INTERVAL))
return;
spin_lock(&dom->lock);
if (time_after_eq(now, dom->dirty_limit_tstamp + BANDWIDTH_INTERVAL)) {
update_dirty_limit(dtc);
dom->dirty_limit_tstamp = now;
}
spin_unlock(&dom->lock);
}
/*
* Maintain wb->dirty_ratelimit, the base dirty throttle rate.
*
* Normal wb tasks will be curbed at or below it in long term.
* Obviously it should be around (write_bw / N) when there are N dd tasks.
*/
static void wb_update_dirty_ratelimit(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc,
unsigned long dirtied,
unsigned long elapsed)
{
struct bdi_writeback *wb = dtc->wb;
unsigned long dirty = dtc->dirty;
unsigned long freerun = dirty_freerun_ceiling(dtc->thresh, dtc->bg_thresh);
unsigned long limit = hard_dirty_limit(dtc_dom(dtc), dtc->thresh);
unsigned long setpoint = (freerun + limit) / 2;
unsigned long write_bw = wb->avg_write_bandwidth;
unsigned long dirty_ratelimit = wb->dirty_ratelimit;
unsigned long dirty_rate;
unsigned long task_ratelimit;
unsigned long balanced_dirty_ratelimit;
unsigned long step;
unsigned long x;
unsigned long shift;
/*
* The dirty rate will match the writeout rate in long term, except
* when dirty pages are truncated by userspace or re-dirtied by FS.
*/
dirty_rate = (dirtied - wb->dirtied_stamp) * HZ / elapsed;
/*
* task_ratelimit reflects each dd's dirty rate for the past 200ms.
*/
task_ratelimit = (u64)dirty_ratelimit *
dtc->pos_ratio >> RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT;
task_ratelimit++; /* it helps rampup dirty_ratelimit from tiny values */
/*
* A linear estimation of the "balanced" throttle rate. The theory is,
* if there are N dd tasks, each throttled at task_ratelimit, the wb's
* dirty_rate will be measured to be (N * task_ratelimit). So the below
* formula will yield the balanced rate limit (write_bw / N).
*
* Note that the expanded form is not a pure rate feedback:
* rate_(i+1) = rate_(i) * (write_bw / dirty_rate) (1)
* but also takes pos_ratio into account:
* rate_(i+1) = rate_(i) * (write_bw / dirty_rate) * pos_ratio (2)
*
* (1) is not realistic because pos_ratio also takes part in balancing
* the dirty rate. Consider the state
* pos_ratio = 0.5 (3)
* rate = 2 * (write_bw / N) (4)
* If (1) is used, it will stuck in that state! Because each dd will
* be throttled at
* task_ratelimit = pos_ratio * rate = (write_bw / N) (5)
* yielding
* dirty_rate = N * task_ratelimit = write_bw (6)
* put (6) into (1) we get
* rate_(i+1) = rate_(i) (7)
*
* So we end up using (2) to always keep
* rate_(i+1) ~= (write_bw / N) (8)
* regardless of the value of pos_ratio. As long as (8) is satisfied,
* pos_ratio is able to drive itself to 1.0, which is not only where
* the dirty count meet the setpoint, but also where the slope of
* pos_ratio is most flat and hence task_ratelimit is least fluctuated.
*/
balanced_dirty_ratelimit = div_u64((u64)task_ratelimit * write_bw,
dirty_rate | 1);
/*
* balanced_dirty_ratelimit ~= (write_bw / N) <= write_bw
*/
if (unlikely(balanced_dirty_ratelimit > write_bw))
balanced_dirty_ratelimit = write_bw;
/*
* We could safely do this and return immediately:
*
* wb->dirty_ratelimit = balanced_dirty_ratelimit;
*
* However to get a more stable dirty_ratelimit, the below elaborated
* code makes use of task_ratelimit to filter out singular points and
* limit the step size.
*
* The below code essentially only uses the relative value of
*
* task_ratelimit - dirty_ratelimit
* = (pos_ratio - 1) * dirty_ratelimit
*
* which reflects the direction and size of dirty position error.
*/
/*
* dirty_ratelimit will follow balanced_dirty_ratelimit iff
* task_ratelimit is on the same side of dirty_ratelimit, too.
* For example, when
* - dirty_ratelimit > balanced_dirty_ratelimit
* - dirty_ratelimit > task_ratelimit (dirty pages are above setpoint)
* lowering dirty_ratelimit will help meet both the position and rate
* control targets. Otherwise, don't update dirty_ratelimit if it will
* only help meet the rate target. After all, what the users ultimately
* feel and care are stable dirty rate and small position error.
*
* |task_ratelimit - dirty_ratelimit| is used to limit the step size
* and filter out the singular points of balanced_dirty_ratelimit. Which
* keeps jumping around randomly and can even leap far away at times
* due to the small 200ms estimation period of dirty_rate (we want to
* keep that period small to reduce time lags).
*/
step = 0;
/*
* For strictlimit case, calculations above were based on wb counters
* and limits (starting from pos_ratio = wb_position_ratio() and up to
* balanced_dirty_ratelimit = task_ratelimit * write_bw / dirty_rate).
* Hence, to calculate "step" properly, we have to use wb_dirty as
* "dirty" and wb_setpoint as "setpoint".
*
* We rampup dirty_ratelimit forcibly if wb_dirty is low because
* it's possible that wb_thresh is close to zero due to inactivity
* of backing device.
*/
if (unlikely(wb->bdi->capabilities & BDI_CAP_STRICTLIMIT)) {
dirty = dtc->wb_dirty;
if (dtc->wb_dirty < 8)
setpoint = dtc->wb_dirty + 1;
else
setpoint = (dtc->wb_thresh + dtc->wb_bg_thresh) / 2;
}
if (dirty < setpoint) {
x = min3(wb->balanced_dirty_ratelimit,
balanced_dirty_ratelimit, task_ratelimit);
if (dirty_ratelimit < x)
step = x - dirty_ratelimit;
} else {
x = max3(wb->balanced_dirty_ratelimit,
balanced_dirty_ratelimit, task_ratelimit);
if (dirty_ratelimit > x)
step = dirty_ratelimit - x;
}
/*
* Don't pursue 100% rate matching. It's impossible since the balanced
* rate itself is constantly fluctuating. So decrease the track speed
* when it gets close to the target. Helps eliminate pointless tremors.
*/
shift = dirty_ratelimit / (2 * step + 1);
if (shift < BITS_PER_LONG)
step = DIV_ROUND_UP(step >> shift, 8);
else
step = 0;
if (dirty_ratelimit < balanced_dirty_ratelimit)
dirty_ratelimit += step;
else
dirty_ratelimit -= step;
WRITE_ONCE(wb->dirty_ratelimit, max(dirty_ratelimit, 1UL));
wb->balanced_dirty_ratelimit = balanced_dirty_ratelimit;
trace_bdi_dirty_ratelimit(wb, dirty_rate, task_ratelimit);
}
static void __wb_update_bandwidth(struct dirty_throttle_control *gdtc,
struct dirty_throttle_control *mdtc,
bool update_ratelimit)
{
struct bdi_writeback *wb = gdtc->wb;
unsigned long now = jiffies;
unsigned long elapsed;
unsigned long dirtied;
unsigned long written;
spin_lock(&wb->list_lock);
/*
* Lockless checks for elapsed time are racy and delayed update after
* IO completion doesn't do it at all (to make sure written pages are
* accounted reasonably quickly). Make sure elapsed >= 1 to avoid
* division errors.
*/
elapsed = max(now - wb->bw_time_stamp, 1UL);
dirtied = percpu_counter_read(&wb->stat[WB_DIRTIED]);
written = percpu_counter_read(&wb->stat[WB_WRITTEN]);
if (update_ratelimit) {
domain_update_dirty_limit(gdtc, now);
wb_update_dirty_ratelimit(gdtc, dirtied, elapsed);
/*
* @mdtc is always NULL if !CGROUP_WRITEBACK but the
* compiler has no way to figure that out. Help it.
*/
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_CGROUP_WRITEBACK) && mdtc) {
domain_update_dirty_limit(mdtc, now);
wb_update_dirty_ratelimit(mdtc, dirtied, elapsed);
}
}
wb_update_write_bandwidth(wb, elapsed, written);
wb->dirtied_stamp = dirtied;
wb->written_stamp = written;
WRITE_ONCE(wb->bw_time_stamp, now);
spin_unlock(&wb->list_lock);
}
void wb_update_bandwidth(struct bdi_writeback *wb)
{
struct dirty_throttle_control gdtc = { GDTC_INIT(wb) };
__wb_update_bandwidth(&gdtc, NULL, false);
}
/* Interval after which we consider wb idle and don't estimate bandwidth */
#define WB_BANDWIDTH_IDLE_JIF (HZ)
static void wb_bandwidth_estimate_start(struct bdi_writeback *wb)
{
unsigned long now = jiffies;
unsigned long elapsed = now - READ_ONCE(wb->bw_time_stamp);
if (elapsed > WB_BANDWIDTH_IDLE_JIF &&
!atomic_read(&wb->writeback_inodes)) {
spin_lock(&wb->list_lock);
wb->dirtied_stamp = wb_stat(wb, WB_DIRTIED);
wb->written_stamp = wb_stat(wb, WB_WRITTEN);
WRITE_ONCE(wb->bw_time_stamp, now);
spin_unlock(&wb->list_lock);
}
}
/*
* After a task dirtied this many pages, balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited()
* will look to see if it needs to start dirty throttling.
*
* If dirty_poll_interval is too low, big NUMA machines will call the expensive
* global_zone_page_state() too often. So scale it near-sqrt to the safety margin
* (the number of pages we may dirty without exceeding the dirty limits).
*/
static unsigned long dirty_poll_interval(unsigned long dirty,
unsigned long thresh)
{
if (thresh > dirty)
return 1UL << (ilog2(thresh - dirty) >> 1);
return 1;
}
static unsigned long wb_max_pause(struct bdi_writeback *wb,
unsigned long wb_dirty)
{
unsigned long bw = READ_ONCE(wb->avg_write_bandwidth);
unsigned long t;
/*
* Limit pause time for small memory systems. If sleeping for too long
* time, a small pool of dirty/writeback pages may go empty and disk go
* idle.
*
* 8 serves as the safety ratio.
*/
t = wb_dirty / (1 + bw / roundup_pow_of_two(1 + HZ / 8));
t++;
return min_t(unsigned long, t, MAX_PAUSE);
}
static long wb_min_pause(struct bdi_writeback *wb,
long max_pause,
unsigned long task_ratelimit,
unsigned long dirty_ratelimit,
int *nr_dirtied_pause)
{
long hi = ilog2(READ_ONCE(wb->avg_write_bandwidth));
long lo = ilog2(READ_ONCE(wb->dirty_ratelimit));
long t; /* target pause */
long pause; /* estimated next pause */
int pages; /* target nr_dirtied_pause */
/* target for 10ms pause on 1-dd case */
t = max(1, HZ / 100);
/*
* Scale up pause time for concurrent dirtiers in order to reduce CPU
* overheads.
*
* (N * 10ms) on 2^N concurrent tasks.
*/
if (hi > lo)
t += (hi - lo) * (10 * HZ) / 1024;
/*
* This is a bit convoluted. We try to base the next nr_dirtied_pause
* on the much more stable dirty_ratelimit. However the next pause time
* will be computed based on task_ratelimit and the two rate limits may
* depart considerably at some time. Especially if task_ratelimit goes
* below dirty_ratelimit/2 and the target pause is max_pause, the next
* pause time will be max_pause*2 _trimmed down_ to max_pause. As a
* result task_ratelimit won't be executed faithfully, which could
* eventually bring down dirty_ratelimit.
*
* We apply two rules to fix it up:
* 1) try to estimate the next pause time and if necessary, use a lower
* nr_dirtied_pause so as not to exceed max_pause. When this happens,
* nr_dirtied_pause will be "dancing" with task_ratelimit.
* 2) limit the target pause time to max_pause/2, so that the normal
* small fluctuations of task_ratelimit won't trigger rule (1) and
* nr_dirtied_pause will remain as stable as dirty_ratelimit.
*/
t = min(t, 1 + max_pause / 2);
pages = dirty_ratelimit * t / roundup_pow_of_two(HZ);
/*
* Tiny nr_dirtied_pause is found to hurt I/O performance in the test
* case fio-mmap-randwrite-64k, which does 16*{sync read, async write}.
* When the 16 consecutive reads are often interrupted by some dirty
* throttling pause during the async writes, cfq will go into idles
* (deadline is fine). So push nr_dirtied_pause as high as possible
* until reaches DIRTY_POLL_THRESH=32 pages.
*/
if (pages < DIRTY_POLL_THRESH) {
t = max_pause;
pages = dirty_ratelimit * t / roundup_pow_of_two(HZ);
if (pages > DIRTY_POLL_THRESH) {
pages = DIRTY_POLL_THRESH;
t = HZ * DIRTY_POLL_THRESH / dirty_ratelimit;
}
}
pause = HZ * pages / (task_ratelimit + 1);
if (pause > max_pause) {
t = max_pause;
pages = task_ratelimit * t / roundup_pow_of_two(HZ);
}
*nr_dirtied_pause = pages;
/*
* The minimal pause time will normally be half the target pause time.
*/
return pages >= DIRTY_POLL_THRESH ? 1 + t / 2 : t;
}
static inline void wb_dirty_limits(struct dirty_throttle_control *dtc)
{
struct bdi_writeback *wb = dtc->wb;
unsigned long wb_reclaimable;
/*
* wb_thresh is not treated as some limiting factor as
* dirty_thresh, due to reasons
* - in JBOD setup, wb_thresh can fluctuate a lot
* - in a system with HDD and USB key, the USB key may somehow
* go into state (wb_dirty >> wb_thresh) either because
* wb_dirty starts high, or because wb_thresh drops low.
* In this case we don't want to hard throttle the USB key
* dirtiers for 100 seconds until wb_dirty drops under
* wb_thresh. Instead the auxiliary wb control line in
* wb_position_ratio() will let the dirtier task progress
* at some rate <= (write_bw / 2) for bringing down wb_dirty.
*/
dtc->wb_thresh = __wb_calc_thresh(dtc);
dtc->wb_bg_thresh = dtc->thresh ?
div_u64((u64)dtc->wb_thresh * dtc->bg_thresh, dtc->thresh) : 0;
/*
* In order to avoid the stacked BDI deadlock we need
* to ensure we accurately count the 'dirty' pages when
* the threshold is low.
*
* Otherwise it would be possible to get thresh+n pages
* reported dirty, even though there are thresh-m pages
* actually dirty; with m+n sitting in the percpu
* deltas.
*/
if (dtc->wb_thresh < 2 * wb_stat_error()) {
wb_reclaimable = wb_stat_sum(wb, WB_RECLAIMABLE);
dtc->wb_dirty = wb_reclaimable + wb_stat_sum(wb, WB_WRITEBACK);
} else {
wb_reclaimable = wb_stat(wb, WB_RECLAIMABLE);
dtc->wb_dirty = wb_reclaimable + wb_stat(wb, WB_WRITEBACK);
}
}
/*
* balance_dirty_pages() must be called by processes which are generating dirty
* data. It looks at the number of dirty pages in the machine and will force
* the caller to wait once crossing the (background_thresh + dirty_thresh) / 2.
* If we're over `background_thresh' then the writeback threads are woken to
* perform some writeout.
*/
static void balance_dirty_pages(struct bdi_writeback *wb,
unsigned long pages_dirtied)
{
struct dirty_throttle_control gdtc_stor = { GDTC_INIT(wb) };
struct dirty_throttle_control mdtc_stor = { MDTC_INIT(wb, &gdtc_stor) };
struct dirty_throttle_control * const gdtc = &gdtc_stor;
struct dirty_throttle_control * const mdtc = mdtc_valid(&mdtc_stor) ?
&mdtc_stor : NULL;
struct dirty_throttle_control *sdtc;
unsigned long nr_reclaimable; /* = file_dirty */
long period;
long pause;
long max_pause;
long min_pause;
int nr_dirtied_pause;
bool dirty_exceeded = false;
unsigned long task_ratelimit;
unsigned long dirty_ratelimit;
struct backing_dev_info *bdi = wb->bdi;
bool strictlimit = bdi->capabilities & BDI_CAP_STRICTLIMIT;
unsigned long start_time = jiffies;
for (;;) {
unsigned long now = jiffies;
unsigned long dirty, thresh, bg_thresh;
unsigned long m_dirty = 0; /* stop bogus uninit warnings */
unsigned long m_thresh = 0;
unsigned long m_bg_thresh = 0;
nr_reclaimable = global_node_page_state(NR_FILE_DIRTY);
gdtc->avail = global_dirtyable_memory();
gdtc->dirty = nr_reclaimable + global_node_page_state(NR_WRITEBACK);
domain_dirty_limits(gdtc);
if (unlikely(strictlimit)) {
wb_dirty_limits(gdtc);
dirty = gdtc->wb_dirty;
thresh = gdtc->wb_thresh;
bg_thresh = gdtc->wb_bg_thresh;
} else {
dirty = gdtc->dirty;
thresh = gdtc->thresh;
bg_thresh = gdtc->bg_thresh;
}
if (mdtc) {
unsigned long filepages, headroom, writeback;
/*
* If @wb belongs to !root memcg, repeat the same
* basic calculations for the memcg domain.
*/
mem_cgroup_wb_stats(wb, &filepages, &headroom,
&mdtc->dirty, &writeback);
mdtc->dirty += writeback;
mdtc_calc_avail(mdtc, filepages, headroom);
domain_dirty_limits(mdtc);
if (unlikely(strictlimit)) {
wb_dirty_limits(mdtc);
m_dirty = mdtc->wb_dirty;
m_thresh = mdtc->wb_thresh;
m_bg_thresh = mdtc->wb_bg_thresh;
} else {
m_dirty = mdtc->dirty;
m_thresh = mdtc->thresh;
m_bg_thresh = mdtc->bg_thresh;
}
}
/*
* Throttle it only when the background writeback cannot
* catch-up. This avoids (excessively) small writeouts
* when the wb limits are ramping up in case of !strictlimit.
*
* In strictlimit case make decision based on the wb counters
* and limits. Small writeouts when the wb limits are ramping
* up are the price we consciously pay for strictlimit-ing.
*
* If memcg domain is in effect, @dirty should be under
* both global and memcg freerun ceilings.
*/
if (dirty <= dirty_freerun_ceiling(thresh, bg_thresh) &&
(!mdtc ||
m_dirty <= dirty_freerun_ceiling(m_thresh, m_bg_thresh))) {
unsigned long intv;
unsigned long m_intv;
free_running:
intv = dirty_poll_interval(dirty, thresh);
m_intv = ULONG_MAX;
current->dirty_paused_when = now;
current->nr_dirtied = 0;
if (mdtc)
m_intv = dirty_poll_interval(m_dirty, m_thresh);
current->nr_dirtied_pause = min(intv, m_intv);
break;
}
if (unlikely(!writeback_in_progress(wb)))
wb_start_background_writeback(wb);
mem_cgroup_flush_foreign(wb);
/*
* Calculate global domain's pos_ratio and select the
* global dtc by default.
*/
if (!strictlimit) {
wb_dirty_limits(gdtc);
if ((current->flags & PF_LOCAL_THROTTLE) &&
gdtc->wb_dirty <
dirty_freerun_ceiling(gdtc->wb_thresh,
gdtc->wb_bg_thresh))
/*
* LOCAL_THROTTLE tasks must not be throttled
* when below the per-wb freerun ceiling.
*/
goto free_running;
}
dirty_exceeded = (gdtc->wb_dirty > gdtc->wb_thresh) &&
((gdtc->dirty > gdtc->thresh) || strictlimit);
wb_position_ratio(gdtc);
sdtc = gdtc;
if (mdtc) {
/*
* If memcg domain is in effect, calculate its
* pos_ratio. @wb should satisfy constraints from
* both global and memcg domains. Choose the one
* w/ lower pos_ratio.
*/
if (!strictlimit) {
wb_dirty_limits(mdtc);
if ((current->flags & PF_LOCAL_THROTTLE) &&
mdtc->wb_dirty <
dirty_freerun_ceiling(mdtc->wb_thresh,
mdtc->wb_bg_thresh))
/*
* LOCAL_THROTTLE tasks must not be
* throttled when below the per-wb
* freerun ceiling.
*/
goto free_running;
}
dirty_exceeded |= (mdtc->wb_dirty > mdtc->wb_thresh) &&
((mdtc->dirty > mdtc->thresh) || strictlimit);
wb_position_ratio(mdtc);
if (mdtc->pos_ratio < gdtc->pos_ratio)
sdtc = mdtc;
}
if (dirty_exceeded && !wb->dirty_exceeded)
wb->dirty_exceeded = 1;
if (time_is_before_jiffies(READ_ONCE(wb->bw_time_stamp) +
BANDWIDTH_INTERVAL))
__wb_update_bandwidth(gdtc, mdtc, true);
/* throttle according to the chosen dtc */
dirty_ratelimit = READ_ONCE(wb->dirty_ratelimit);
task_ratelimit = ((u64)dirty_ratelimit * sdtc->pos_ratio) >>
RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT;
max_pause = wb_max_pause(wb, sdtc->wb_dirty);
min_pause = wb_min_pause(wb, max_pause,
task_ratelimit, dirty_ratelimit,
&nr_dirtied_pause);
if (unlikely(task_ratelimit == 0)) {
period = max_pause;
pause = max_pause;
goto pause;
}
period = HZ * pages_dirtied / task_ratelimit;
pause = period;
if (current->dirty_paused_when)
pause -= now - current->dirty_paused_when;
/*
* For less than 1s think time (ext3/4 may block the dirtier
* for up to 800ms from time to time on 1-HDD; so does xfs,
* however at much less frequency), try to compensate it in
* future periods by updating the virtual time; otherwise just
* do a reset, as it may be a light dirtier.
*/
if (pause < min_pause) {
trace_balance_dirty_pages(wb,
sdtc->thresh,
sdtc->bg_thresh,
sdtc->dirty,
sdtc->wb_thresh,
sdtc->wb_dirty,
dirty_ratelimit,
task_ratelimit,
pages_dirtied,
period,
min(pause, 0L),
start_time);
if (pause < -HZ) {
current->dirty_paused_when = now;
current->nr_dirtied = 0;
} else if (period) {
current->dirty_paused_when += period;
current->nr_dirtied = 0;
} else if (current->nr_dirtied_pause <= pages_dirtied)
current->nr_dirtied_pause += pages_dirtied;
break;
}
if (unlikely(pause > max_pause)) {
/* for occasional dropped task_ratelimit */
now += min(pause - max_pause, max_pause);
pause = max_pause;
}
pause:
trace_balance_dirty_pages(wb,
sdtc->thresh,
sdtc->bg_thresh,
sdtc->dirty,
sdtc->wb_thresh,
sdtc->wb_dirty,
dirty_ratelimit,
task_ratelimit,
pages_dirtied,
period,
pause,
start_time);
__set_current_state(TASK_KILLABLE);
wb->dirty_sleep = now;
io_schedule_timeout(pause);
current->dirty_paused_when = now + pause;
current->nr_dirtied = 0;
current->nr_dirtied_pause = nr_dirtied_pause;
/*
* This is typically equal to (dirty < thresh) and can also
* keep "1000+ dd on a slow USB stick" under control.
*/
if (task_ratelimit)
break;
/*
* In the case of an unresponsive NFS server and the NFS dirty
* pages exceeds dirty_thresh, give the other good wb's a pipe
* to go through, so that tasks on them still remain responsive.
*
* In theory 1 page is enough to keep the consumer-producer
* pipe going: the flusher cleans 1 page => the task dirties 1
* more page. However wb_dirty has accounting errors. So use
* the larger and more IO friendly wb_stat_error.
*/
if (sdtc->wb_dirty <= wb_stat_error())
break;
if (fatal_signal_pending(current))
break;
}
if (!dirty_exceeded && wb->dirty_exceeded)
wb->dirty_exceeded = 0;
if (writeback_in_progress(wb))
return;
/*
* In laptop mode, we wait until hitting the higher threshold before
* starting background writeout, and then write out all the way down
* to the lower threshold. So slow writers cause minimal disk activity.
*
* In normal mode, we start background writeout at the lower
* background_thresh, to keep the amount of dirty memory low.
*/
if (laptop_mode)
return;
if (nr_reclaimable > gdtc->bg_thresh)
wb_start_background_writeback(wb);
}
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(int, bdp_ratelimits);
/*
* Normal tasks are throttled by
* loop {
* dirty tsk->nr_dirtied_pause pages;
* take a snap in balance_dirty_pages();
* }
* However there is a worst case. If every task exit immediately when dirtied
* (tsk->nr_dirtied_pause - 1) pages, balance_dirty_pages() will never be
* called to throttle the page dirties. The solution is to save the not yet
* throttled page dirties in dirty_throttle_leaks on task exit and charge them
* randomly into the running tasks. This works well for the above worst case,
* as the new task will pick up and accumulate the old task's leaked dirty
* count and eventually get throttled.
*/
DEFINE_PER_CPU(int, dirty_throttle_leaks) = 0;
/**
* balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited - balance dirty memory state
* @mapping: address_space which was dirtied
*
* Processes which are dirtying memory should call in here once for each page
* which was newly dirtied. The function will periodically check the system's
* dirty state and will initiate writeback if needed.
*
* Once we're over the dirty memory limit we decrease the ratelimiting
* by a lot, to prevent individual processes from overshooting the limit
* by (ratelimit_pages) each.
*/
void balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited(struct address_space *mapping)
{
struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
struct backing_dev_info *bdi = inode_to_bdi(inode);
struct bdi_writeback *wb = NULL;
int ratelimit;
int *p;
if (!(bdi->capabilities & BDI_CAP_WRITEBACK))
return;
if (inode_cgwb_enabled(inode))
wb = wb_get_create_current(bdi, GFP_KERNEL);
if (!wb)
wb = &bdi->wb;
ratelimit = current->nr_dirtied_pause;
if (wb->dirty_exceeded)
ratelimit = min(ratelimit, 32 >> (PAGE_SHIFT - 10));
preempt_disable();
/*
* This prevents one CPU to accumulate too many dirtied pages without
* calling into balance_dirty_pages(), which can happen when there are
* 1000+ tasks, all of them start dirtying pages at exactly the same
* time, hence all honoured too large initial task->nr_dirtied_pause.
*/
p = this_cpu_ptr(&bdp_ratelimits);
if (unlikely(current->nr_dirtied >= ratelimit))
*p = 0;
else if (unlikely(*p >= ratelimit_pages)) {
*p = 0;
ratelimit = 0;
}
/*
* Pick up the dirtied pages by the exited tasks. This avoids lots of
* short-lived tasks (eg. gcc invocations in a kernel build) escaping
* the dirty throttling and livelock other long-run dirtiers.
*/
p = this_cpu_ptr(&dirty_throttle_leaks);
if (*p > 0 && current->nr_dirtied < ratelimit) {
unsigned long nr_pages_dirtied;
nr_pages_dirtied = min(*p, ratelimit - current->nr_dirtied);
*p -= nr_pages_dirtied;
current->nr_dirtied += nr_pages_dirtied;
}
preempt_enable();
if (unlikely(current->nr_dirtied >= ratelimit))
balance_dirty_pages(wb, current->nr_dirtied);
wb_put(wb);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited);
/**
* wb_over_bg_thresh - does @wb need to be written back?
* @wb: bdi_writeback of interest
*
* Determines whether background writeback should keep writing @wb or it's
* clean enough.
*
* Return: %true if writeback should continue.
*/
bool wb_over_bg_thresh(struct bdi_writeback *wb)
{
struct dirty_throttle_control gdtc_stor = { GDTC_INIT(wb) };
struct dirty_throttle_control mdtc_stor = { MDTC_INIT(wb, &gdtc_stor) };
struct dirty_throttle_control * const gdtc = &gdtc_stor;
struct dirty_throttle_control * const mdtc = mdtc_valid(&mdtc_stor) ?
&mdtc_stor : NULL;
unsigned long reclaimable;
unsigned long thresh;
/*
* Similar to balance_dirty_pages() but ignores pages being written
* as we're trying to decide whether to put more under writeback.
*/
gdtc->avail = global_dirtyable_memory();
gdtc->dirty = global_node_page_state(NR_FILE_DIRTY);
domain_dirty_limits(gdtc);
if (gdtc->dirty > gdtc->bg_thresh)
return true;
thresh = wb_calc_thresh(gdtc->wb, gdtc->bg_thresh);
if (thresh < 2 * wb_stat_error())
reclaimable = wb_stat_sum(wb, WB_RECLAIMABLE);
else
reclaimable = wb_stat(wb, WB_RECLAIMABLE);
if (reclaimable > thresh)
return true;
if (mdtc) {
unsigned long filepages, headroom, writeback;
mem_cgroup_wb_stats(wb, &filepages, &headroom, &mdtc->dirty,
&writeback);
mdtc_calc_avail(mdtc, filepages, headroom);
domain_dirty_limits(mdtc); /* ditto, ignore writeback */
if (mdtc->dirty > mdtc->bg_thresh)
return true;
thresh = wb_calc_thresh(mdtc->wb, mdtc->bg_thresh);
if (thresh < 2 * wb_stat_error())
reclaimable = wb_stat_sum(wb, WB_RECLAIMABLE);
else
reclaimable = wb_stat(wb, WB_RECLAIMABLE);
if (reclaimable > thresh)
return true;
}
return false;
}
/*
* sysctl handler for /proc/sys/vm/dirty_writeback_centisecs
*/
int dirty_writeback_centisecs_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void *buffer, size_t *length, loff_t *ppos)
{
unsigned int old_interval = dirty_writeback_interval;
int ret;
ret = proc_dointvec(table, write, buffer, length, ppos);
/*
* Writing 0 to dirty_writeback_interval will disable periodic writeback
* and a different non-zero value will wakeup the writeback threads.
* wb_wakeup_delayed() would be more appropriate, but it's a pain to
* iterate over all bdis and wbs.
* The reason we do this is to make the change take effect immediately.
*/
if (!ret && write && dirty_writeback_interval &&
dirty_writeback_interval != old_interval)
wakeup_flusher_threads(WB_REASON_PERIODIC);
return ret;
}
void laptop_mode_timer_fn(struct timer_list *t)
{
struct backing_dev_info *backing_dev_info =
from_timer(backing_dev_info, t, laptop_mode_wb_timer);
wakeup_flusher_threads_bdi(backing_dev_info, WB_REASON_LAPTOP_TIMER);
}
/*
* We've spun up the disk and we're in laptop mode: schedule writeback
* of all dirty data a few seconds from now. If the flush is already scheduled
* then push it back - the user is still using the disk.
*/
void laptop_io_completion(struct backing_dev_info *info)
{
mod_timer(&info->laptop_mode_wb_timer, jiffies + laptop_mode);
}
/*
* We're in laptop mode and we've just synced. The sync's writes will have
* caused another writeback to be scheduled by laptop_io_completion.
* Nothing needs to be written back anymore, so we unschedule the writeback.
*/
void laptop_sync_completion(void)
{
struct backing_dev_info *bdi;
rcu_read_lock();
list_for_each_entry_rcu(bdi, &bdi_list, bdi_list)
del_timer(&bdi->laptop_mode_wb_timer);
rcu_read_unlock();
}
/*
* If ratelimit_pages is too high then we can get into dirty-data overload
* if a large number of processes all perform writes at the same time.
*
* Here we set ratelimit_pages to a level which ensures that when all CPUs are
* dirtying in parallel, we cannot go more than 3% (1/32) over the dirty memory
* thresholds.
*/
void writeback_set_ratelimit(void)
{
struct wb_domain *dom = &global_wb_domain;
unsigned long background_thresh;
unsigned long dirty_thresh;
global_dirty_limits(&background_thresh, &dirty_thresh);
dom->dirty_limit = dirty_thresh;
ratelimit_pages = dirty_thresh / (num_online_cpus() * 32);
if (ratelimit_pages < 16)
ratelimit_pages = 16;
}
static int page_writeback_cpu_online(unsigned int cpu)
{
writeback_set_ratelimit();
return 0;
}
/*
* Called early on to tune the page writeback dirty limits.
*
* We used to scale dirty pages according to how total memory
* related to pages that could be allocated for buffers.
*
* However, that was when we used "dirty_ratio" to scale with
* all memory, and we don't do that any more. "dirty_ratio"
* is now applied to total non-HIGHPAGE memory, and as such we can't
* get into the old insane situation any more where we had
* large amounts of dirty pages compared to a small amount of
* non-HIGHMEM memory.
*
* But we might still want to scale the dirty_ratio by how
* much memory the box has..
*/
void __init page_writeback_init(void)
{
BUG_ON(wb_domain_init(&global_wb_domain, GFP_KERNEL));
cpuhp_setup_state(CPUHP_AP_ONLINE_DYN, "mm/writeback:online",
page_writeback_cpu_online, NULL);
cpuhp_setup_state(CPUHP_MM_WRITEBACK_DEAD, "mm/writeback:dead", NULL,
page_writeback_cpu_online);
}
/**
* tag_pages_for_writeback - tag pages to be written by write_cache_pages
* @mapping: address space structure to write
* @start: starting page index
* @end: ending page index (inclusive)
*
* This function scans the page range from @start to @end (inclusive) and tags
* all pages that have DIRTY tag set with a special TOWRITE tag. The idea is
* that write_cache_pages (or whoever calls this function) will then use
* TOWRITE tag to identify pages eligible for writeback. This mechanism is
* used to avoid livelocking of writeback by a process steadily creating new
* dirty pages in the file (thus it is important for this function to be quick
* so that it can tag pages faster than a dirtying process can create them).
*/
void tag_pages_for_writeback(struct address_space *mapping,
pgoff_t start, pgoff_t end)
{
XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, start);
unsigned int tagged = 0;
void *page;
xas_lock_irq(&xas);
xas_for_each_marked(&xas, page, end, PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY) {
xas_set_mark(&xas, PAGECACHE_TAG_TOWRITE);
if (++tagged % XA_CHECK_SCHED)
continue;
xas_pause(&xas);
xas_unlock_irq(&xas);
cond_resched();
xas_lock_irq(&xas);
}
xas_unlock_irq(&xas);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(tag_pages_for_writeback);
/**
* write_cache_pages - walk the list of dirty pages of the given address space and write all of them.
* @mapping: address space structure to write
* @wbc: subtract the number of written pages from *@wbc->nr_to_write
* @writepage: function called for each page
* @data: data passed to writepage function
*
* If a page is already under I/O, write_cache_pages() skips it, even
* if it's dirty. This is desirable behaviour for memory-cleaning writeback,
* but it is INCORRECT for data-integrity system calls such as fsync(). fsync()
* and msync() need to guarantee that all the data which was dirty at the time
* the call was made get new I/O started against them. If wbc->sync_mode is
* WB_SYNC_ALL then we were called for data integrity and we must wait for
* existing IO to complete.
*
* To avoid livelocks (when other process dirties new pages), we first tag
* pages which should be written back with TOWRITE tag and only then start
* writing them. For data-integrity sync we have to be careful so that we do
* not miss some pages (e.g., because some other process has cleared TOWRITE
* tag we set). The rule we follow is that TOWRITE tag can be cleared only
* by the process clearing the DIRTY tag (and submitting the page for IO).
*
* To avoid deadlocks between range_cyclic writeback and callers that hold
* pages in PageWriteback to aggregate IO until write_cache_pages() returns,
* we do not loop back to the start of the file. Doing so causes a page
* lock/page writeback access order inversion - we should only ever lock
* multiple pages in ascending page->index order, and looping back to the start
* of the file violates that rule and causes deadlocks.
*
* Return: %0 on success, negative error code otherwise
*/
int write_cache_pages(struct address_space *mapping,
struct writeback_control *wbc, writepage_t writepage,
void *data)
{
int ret = 0;
int done = 0;
int error;
struct pagevec pvec;
int nr_pages;
pgoff_t index;
pgoff_t end; /* Inclusive */
pgoff_t done_index;
int range_whole = 0;
xa_mark_t tag;
pagevec_init(&pvec);
if (wbc->range_cyclic) {
index = mapping->writeback_index; /* prev offset */
end = -1;
} else {
index = wbc->range_start >> PAGE_SHIFT;
end = wbc->range_end >> PAGE_SHIFT;
if (wbc->range_start == 0 && wbc->range_end == LLONG_MAX)
range_whole = 1;
}
if (wbc->sync_mode == WB_SYNC_ALL || wbc->tagged_writepages) {
tag_pages_for_writeback(mapping, index, end);
tag = PAGECACHE_TAG_TOWRITE;
} else {
tag = PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY;
}
done_index = index;
while (!done && (index <= end)) {
int i;
nr_pages = pagevec_lookup_range_tag(&pvec, mapping, &index, end,
tag);
if (nr_pages == 0)
break;
for (i = 0; i < nr_pages; i++) {
struct page *page = pvec.pages[i];
done_index = page->index;
lock_page(page);
/*
* Page truncated or invalidated. We can freely skip it
* then, even for data integrity operations: the page
* has disappeared concurrently, so there could be no
* real expectation of this data integrity operation
* even if there is now a new, dirty page at the same
* pagecache address.
*/
if (unlikely(page->mapping != mapping)) {
continue_unlock:
unlock_page(page);
continue;
}
if (!PageDirty(page)) {
/* someone wrote it for us */
goto continue_unlock;
}
if (PageWriteback(page)) {
if (wbc->sync_mode != WB_SYNC_NONE)
wait_on_page_writeback(page);
else
goto continue_unlock;
}
BUG_ON(PageWriteback(page));
if (!clear_page_dirty_for_io(page))
goto continue_unlock;
trace_wbc_writepage(wbc, inode_to_bdi(mapping->host));
error = (*writepage)(page, wbc, data);
if (unlikely(error)) {
/*
* Handle errors according to the type of
* writeback. There's no need to continue for
* background writeback. Just push done_index
* past this page so media errors won't choke
* writeout for the entire file. For integrity
* writeback, we must process the entire dirty
* set regardless of errors because the fs may
* still have state to clear for each page. In
* that case we continue processing and return
* the first error.
*/
if (error == AOP_WRITEPAGE_ACTIVATE) {
unlock_page(page);
error = 0;
} else if (wbc->sync_mode != WB_SYNC_ALL) {
ret = error;
done_index = page->index + 1;
done = 1;
break;
}
if (!ret)
ret = error;
}
/*
* We stop writing back only if we are not doing
* integrity sync. In case of integrity sync we have to
* keep going until we have written all the pages
* we tagged for writeback prior to entering this loop.
*/
if (--wbc->nr_to_write <= 0 &&
wbc->sync_mode == WB_SYNC_NONE) {
done = 1;
break;
}
}
pagevec_release(&pvec);
cond_resched();
}
/*
* If we hit the last page and there is more work to be done: wrap
* back the index back to the start of the file for the next
* time we are called.
*/
if (wbc->range_cyclic && !done)
done_index = 0;
if (wbc->range_cyclic || (range_whole && wbc->nr_to_write > 0))
mapping->writeback_index = done_index;
return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(write_cache_pages);
/*
* Function used by generic_writepages to call the real writepage
* function and set the mapping flags on error
*/
static int __writepage(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc,
void *data)
{
struct address_space *mapping = data;
int ret = mapping->a_ops->writepage(page, wbc);
mapping_set_error(mapping, ret);
return ret;
}
/**
* generic_writepages - walk the list of dirty pages of the given address space and writepage() all of them.
* @mapping: address space structure to write
* @wbc: subtract the number of written pages from *@wbc->nr_to_write
*
* This is a library function, which implements the writepages()
* address_space_operation.
*
* Return: %0 on success, negative error code otherwise
*/
int generic_writepages(struct address_space *mapping,
struct writeback_control *wbc)
{
struct blk_plug plug;
int ret;
/* deal with chardevs and other special file */
if (!mapping->a_ops->writepage)
return 0;
blk_start_plug(&plug);
ret = write_cache_pages(mapping, wbc, __writepage, mapping);
blk_finish_plug(&plug);
return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(generic_writepages);
int do_writepages(struct address_space *mapping, struct writeback_control *wbc)
{
int ret;
struct bdi_writeback *wb;
if (wbc->nr_to_write <= 0)
return 0;
wb = inode_to_wb_wbc(mapping->host, wbc);
wb_bandwidth_estimate_start(wb);
while (1) {
if (mapping->a_ops->writepages)
ret = mapping->a_ops->writepages(mapping, wbc);
else
ret = generic_writepages(mapping, wbc);
if ((ret != -ENOMEM) || (wbc->sync_mode != WB_SYNC_ALL))
break;
/*
* Lacking an allocation context or the locality or writeback
* state of any of the inode's pages, throttle based on
* writeback activity on the local node. It's as good a
* guess as any.
*/
reclaim_throttle(NODE_DATA(numa_node_id()),
VMSCAN_THROTTLE_WRITEBACK);
}
/*
* Usually few pages are written by now from those we've just submitted
* but if there's constant writeback being submitted, this makes sure
* writeback bandwidth is updated once in a while.
*/
if (time_is_before_jiffies(READ_ONCE(wb->bw_time_stamp) +
BANDWIDTH_INTERVAL))
wb_update_bandwidth(wb);
return ret;
}
/**
* folio_write_one - write out a single folio and wait on I/O.
* @folio: The folio to write.
*
* The folio must be locked by the caller and will be unlocked upon return.
*
* Note that the mapping's AS_EIO/AS_ENOSPC flags will be cleared when this
* function returns.
*
* Return: %0 on success, negative error code otherwise
*/
int folio_write_one(struct folio *folio)
{
struct address_space *mapping = folio->mapping;
int ret = 0;
struct writeback_control wbc = {
.sync_mode = WB_SYNC_ALL,
.nr_to_write = folio_nr_pages(folio),
};
BUG_ON(!folio_test_locked(folio));
folio_wait_writeback(folio);
if (folio_clear_dirty_for_io(folio)) {
folio_get(folio);
ret = mapping->a_ops->writepage(&folio->page, &wbc);
if (ret == 0)
folio_wait_writeback(folio);
folio_put(folio);
} else {
folio_unlock(folio);
}
if (!ret)
ret = filemap_check_errors(mapping);
return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_write_one);
/*
* For address_spaces which do not use buffers nor write back.
*/
int __set_page_dirty_no_writeback(struct page *page)
{
if (!PageDirty(page))
return !TestSetPageDirty(page);
return 0;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__set_page_dirty_no_writeback);
/*
* Helper function for set_page_dirty family.
*
* Caller must hold lock_page_memcg().
*
* NOTE: This relies on being atomic wrt interrupts.
*/
static void folio_account_dirtied(struct folio *folio,
struct address_space *mapping)
{
struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
trace_writeback_dirty_folio(folio, mapping);
if (mapping_can_writeback(mapping)) {
struct bdi_writeback *wb;
long nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
inode_attach_wb(inode, &folio->page);
wb = inode_to_wb(inode);
__lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_FILE_DIRTY, nr);
__zone_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_ZONE_WRITE_PENDING, nr);
__node_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_DIRTIED, nr);
wb_stat_mod(wb, WB_RECLAIMABLE, nr);
wb_stat_mod(wb, WB_DIRTIED, nr);
task_io_account_write(nr * PAGE_SIZE);
current->nr_dirtied += nr;
__this_cpu_add(bdp_ratelimits, nr);
mem_cgroup_track_foreign_dirty(folio, wb);
}
}
/*
* Helper function for deaccounting dirty page without writeback.
*
* Caller must hold lock_page_memcg().
*/
void folio_account_cleaned(struct folio *folio, struct address_space *mapping,
struct bdi_writeback *wb)
{
if (mapping_can_writeback(mapping)) {
long nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_FILE_DIRTY, -nr);
zone_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_ZONE_WRITE_PENDING, -nr);
wb_stat_mod(wb, WB_RECLAIMABLE, -nr);
task_io_account_cancelled_write(nr * PAGE_SIZE);
}
}
/*
* Mark the folio dirty, and set it dirty in the page cache, and mark
* the inode dirty.
*
* If warn is true, then emit a warning if the folio is not uptodate and has
* not been truncated.
*
* The caller must hold lock_page_memcg().
*/
void __folio_mark_dirty(struct folio *folio, struct address_space *mapping,
int warn)
{
unsigned long flags;
xa_lock_irqsave(&mapping->i_pages, flags);
if (folio->mapping) { /* Race with truncate? */
WARN_ON_ONCE(warn && !folio_test_uptodate(folio));
folio_account_dirtied(folio, mapping);
__xa_set_mark(&mapping->i_pages, folio_index(folio),
PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY);
}
xa_unlock_irqrestore(&mapping->i_pages, flags);
}
/**
* filemap_dirty_folio - Mark a folio dirty for filesystems which do not use buffer_heads.
* @mapping: Address space this folio belongs to.
* @folio: Folio to be marked as dirty.
*
* Filesystems which do not use buffer heads should call this function
* from their set_page_dirty address space operation. It ignores the
* contents of folio_get_private(), so if the filesystem marks individual
* blocks as dirty, the filesystem should handle that itself.
*
* This is also sometimes used by filesystems which use buffer_heads when
* a single buffer is being dirtied: we want to set the folio dirty in
* that case, but not all the buffers. This is a "bottom-up" dirtying,
* whereas __set_page_dirty_buffers() is a "top-down" dirtying.
*
* The caller must ensure this doesn't race with truncation. Most will
* simply hold the folio lock, but e.g. zap_pte_range() calls with the
* folio mapped and the pte lock held, which also locks out truncation.
*/
bool filemap_dirty_folio(struct address_space *mapping, struct folio *folio)
{
folio_memcg_lock(folio);
if (folio_test_set_dirty(folio)) {
folio_memcg_unlock(folio);
return false;
}
__folio_mark_dirty(folio, mapping, !folio_test_private(folio));
folio_memcg_unlock(folio);
if (mapping->host) {
/* !PageAnon && !swapper_space */
__mark_inode_dirty(mapping->host, I_DIRTY_PAGES);
}
return true;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(filemap_dirty_folio);
/**
* folio_account_redirty - Manually account for redirtying a page.
* @folio: The folio which is being redirtied.
*
* Most filesystems should call folio_redirty_for_writepage() instead
* of this fuction. If your filesystem is doing writeback outside the
* context of a writeback_control(), it can call this when redirtying
* a folio, to de-account the dirty counters (NR_DIRTIED, WB_DIRTIED,
* tsk->nr_dirtied), so that they match the written counters (NR_WRITTEN,
* WB_WRITTEN) in long term. The mismatches will lead to systematic errors
* in balanced_dirty_ratelimit and the dirty pages position control.
*/
void folio_account_redirty(struct folio *folio)
{
struct address_space *mapping = folio->mapping;
if (mapping && mapping_can_writeback(mapping)) {
struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
struct bdi_writeback *wb;
struct wb_lock_cookie cookie = {};
long nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
wb = unlocked_inode_to_wb_begin(inode, &cookie);
current->nr_dirtied -= nr;
node_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_DIRTIED, -nr);
wb_stat_mod(wb, WB_DIRTIED, -nr);
unlocked_inode_to_wb_end(inode, &cookie);
}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_account_redirty);
/**
* folio_redirty_for_writepage - Decline to write a dirty folio.
* @wbc: The writeback control.
* @folio: The folio.
*
* When a writepage implementation decides that it doesn't want to write
* @folio for some reason, it should call this function, unlock @folio and
* return 0.
*
* Return: True if we redirtied the folio. False if someone else dirtied
* it first.
*/
bool folio_redirty_for_writepage(struct writeback_control *wbc,
struct folio *folio)
{
bool ret;
long nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
wbc->pages_skipped += nr;
ret = filemap_dirty_folio(folio->mapping, folio);
folio_account_redirty(folio);
return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_redirty_for_writepage);
/**
* folio_mark_dirty - Mark a folio as being modified.
* @folio: The folio.
*
* For folios with a mapping this should be done under the page lock
* for the benefit of asynchronous memory errors who prefer a consistent
* dirty state. This rule can be broken in some special cases,
* but should be better not to.
*
* Return: True if the folio was newly dirtied, false if it was already dirty.
*/
bool folio_mark_dirty(struct folio *folio)
{
struct address_space *mapping = folio_mapping(folio);
if (likely(mapping)) {
/*
* readahead/lru_deactivate_page could remain
* PG_readahead/PG_reclaim due to race with end_page_writeback
* About readahead, if the page is written, the flags would be
* reset. So no problem.
* About lru_deactivate_page, if the page is redirty, the flag
* will be reset. So no problem. but if the page is used by readahead
* it will confuse readahead and make it restart the size rampup
* process. But it's a trivial problem.
*/
if (folio_test_reclaim(folio))
folio_clear_reclaim(folio);
return mapping->a_ops->set_page_dirty(&folio->page);
}
if (!folio_test_dirty(folio)) {
if (!folio_test_set_dirty(folio))
return true;
}
return false;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_mark_dirty);
/*
* set_page_dirty() is racy if the caller has no reference against
* page->mapping->host, and if the page is unlocked. This is because another
* CPU could truncate the page off the mapping and then free the mapping.
*
* Usually, the page _is_ locked, or the caller is a user-space process which
* holds a reference on the inode by having an open file.
*
* In other cases, the page should be locked before running set_page_dirty().
*/
int set_page_dirty_lock(struct page *page)
{
int ret;
lock_page(page);
ret = set_page_dirty(page);
unlock_page(page);
return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(set_page_dirty_lock);
/*
* This cancels just the dirty bit on the kernel page itself, it does NOT
* actually remove dirty bits on any mmap's that may be around. It also
* leaves the page tagged dirty, so any sync activity will still find it on
* the dirty lists, and in particular, clear_page_dirty_for_io() will still
* look at the dirty bits in the VM.
*
* Doing this should *normally* only ever be done when a page is truncated,
* and is not actually mapped anywhere at all. However, fs/buffer.c does
* this when it notices that somebody has cleaned out all the buffers on a
* page without actually doing it through the VM. Can you say "ext3 is
* horribly ugly"? Thought you could.
*/
void __folio_cancel_dirty(struct folio *folio)
{
struct address_space *mapping = folio_mapping(folio);
if (mapping_can_writeback(mapping)) {
struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
struct bdi_writeback *wb;
struct wb_lock_cookie cookie = {};
folio_memcg_lock(folio);
wb = unlocked_inode_to_wb_begin(inode, &cookie);
if (folio_test_clear_dirty(folio))
folio_account_cleaned(folio, mapping, wb);
unlocked_inode_to_wb_end(inode, &cookie);
folio_memcg_unlock(folio);
} else {
folio_clear_dirty(folio);
}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__folio_cancel_dirty);
/*
* Clear a folio's dirty flag, while caring for dirty memory accounting.
* Returns true if the folio was previously dirty.
*
* This is for preparing to put the folio under writeout. We leave
* the folio tagged as dirty in the xarray so that a concurrent
* write-for-sync can discover it via a PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY walk.
* The ->writepage implementation will run either folio_start_writeback()
* or folio_mark_dirty(), at which stage we bring the folio's dirty flag
* and xarray dirty tag back into sync.
*
* This incoherency between the folio's dirty flag and xarray tag is
* unfortunate, but it only exists while the folio is locked.
*/
bool folio_clear_dirty_for_io(struct folio *folio)
{
struct address_space *mapping = folio_mapping(folio);
bool ret = false;
VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(!folio_test_locked(folio), folio);
if (mapping && mapping_can_writeback(mapping)) {
struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
struct bdi_writeback *wb;
struct wb_lock_cookie cookie = {};
/*
* Yes, Virginia, this is indeed insane.
*
* We use this sequence to make sure that
* (a) we account for dirty stats properly
* (b) we tell the low-level filesystem to
* mark the whole folio dirty if it was
* dirty in a pagetable. Only to then
* (c) clean the folio again and return 1 to
* cause the writeback.
*
* This way we avoid all nasty races with the
* dirty bit in multiple places and clearing
* them concurrently from different threads.
*
* Note! Normally the "folio_mark_dirty(folio)"
* has no effect on the actual dirty bit - since
* that will already usually be set. But we
* need the side effects, and it can help us
* avoid races.
*
* We basically use the folio "master dirty bit"
* as a serialization point for all the different
* threads doing their things.
*/
if (folio_mkclean(folio))
folio_mark_dirty(folio);
/*
* We carefully synchronise fault handlers against
* installing a dirty pte and marking the folio dirty
* at this point. We do this by having them hold the
* page lock while dirtying the folio, and folios are
* always locked coming in here, so we get the desired
* exclusion.
*/
wb = unlocked_inode_to_wb_begin(inode, &cookie);
if (folio_test_clear_dirty(folio)) {
long nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_FILE_DIRTY, -nr);
zone_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_ZONE_WRITE_PENDING, -nr);
wb_stat_mod(wb, WB_RECLAIMABLE, -nr);
ret = true;
}
unlocked_inode_to_wb_end(inode, &cookie);
return ret;
}
return folio_test_clear_dirty(folio);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(folio_clear_dirty_for_io);
static void wb_inode_writeback_start(struct bdi_writeback *wb)
{
atomic_inc(&wb->writeback_inodes);
}
static void wb_inode_writeback_end(struct bdi_writeback *wb)
{
atomic_dec(&wb->writeback_inodes);
/*
* Make sure estimate of writeback throughput gets updated after
* writeback completed. We delay the update by BANDWIDTH_INTERVAL
* (which is the interval other bandwidth updates use for batching) so
* that if multiple inodes end writeback at a similar time, they get
* batched into one bandwidth update.
*/
queue_delayed_work(bdi_wq, &wb->bw_dwork, BANDWIDTH_INTERVAL);
}
bool __folio_end_writeback(struct folio *folio)
{
long nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
struct address_space *mapping = folio_mapping(folio);
bool ret;
folio_memcg_lock(folio);
if (mapping && mapping_use_writeback_tags(mapping)) {
struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
struct backing_dev_info *bdi = inode_to_bdi(inode);
unsigned long flags;
xa_lock_irqsave(&mapping->i_pages, flags);
ret = folio_test_clear_writeback(folio);
if (ret) {
__xa_clear_mark(&mapping->i_pages, folio_index(folio),
PAGECACHE_TAG_WRITEBACK);
if (bdi->capabilities & BDI_CAP_WRITEBACK_ACCT) {
struct bdi_writeback *wb = inode_to_wb(inode);
wb_stat_mod(wb, WB_WRITEBACK, -nr);
__wb_writeout_add(wb, nr);
if (!mapping_tagged(mapping,
PAGECACHE_TAG_WRITEBACK))
wb_inode_writeback_end(wb);
}
}
if (mapping->host && !mapping_tagged(mapping,
PAGECACHE_TAG_WRITEBACK))
sb_clear_inode_writeback(mapping->host);
xa_unlock_irqrestore(&mapping->i_pages, flags);
} else {
ret = folio_test_clear_writeback(folio);
}
if (ret) {
lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_WRITEBACK, -nr);
zone_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_ZONE_WRITE_PENDING, -nr);
node_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_WRITTEN, nr);
}
folio_memcg_unlock(folio);
return ret;
}
bool __folio_start_writeback(struct folio *folio, bool keep_write)
{
long nr = folio_nr_pages(folio);
struct address_space *mapping = folio_mapping(folio);
bool ret;
int access_ret;
folio_memcg_lock(folio);
if (mapping && mapping_use_writeback_tags(mapping)) {
XA_STATE(xas, &mapping->i_pages, folio_index(folio));
struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
struct backing_dev_info *bdi = inode_to_bdi(inode);
unsigned long flags;
xas_lock_irqsave(&xas, flags);
xas_load(&xas);
ret = folio_test_set_writeback(folio);
if (!ret) {
bool on_wblist;
on_wblist = mapping_tagged(mapping,
PAGECACHE_TAG_WRITEBACK);
xas_set_mark(&xas, PAGECACHE_TAG_WRITEBACK);
if (bdi->capabilities & BDI_CAP_WRITEBACK_ACCT) {
struct bdi_writeback *wb = inode_to_wb(inode);
wb_stat_mod(wb, WB_WRITEBACK, nr);
if (!on_wblist)
wb_inode_writeback_start(wb);
}
/*
* We can come through here when swapping
* anonymous folios, so we don't necessarily
* have an inode to track for sync.
*/
if (mapping->host && !on_wblist)
sb_mark_inode_writeback(mapping->host);
}
if (!folio_test_dirty(folio))
xas_clear_mark(&xas, PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY);
if (!keep_write)
xas_clear_mark(&xas, PAGECACHE_TAG_TOWRITE);
xas_unlock_irqrestore(&xas, flags);
} else {
ret = folio_test_set_writeback(folio);
}
if (!ret) {
lruvec_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_WRITEBACK, nr);
zone_stat_mod_folio(folio, NR_ZONE_WRITE_PENDING, nr);
}
folio_memcg_unlock(folio);
access_ret = arch_make_folio_accessible(folio);
/*
* If writeback has been triggered on a page that cannot be made
* accessible, it is too late to recover here.
*/
VM_BUG_ON_FOLIO(access_ret != 0, folio);
return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__folio_start_writeback);
/**
* folio_wait_writeback - Wait for a folio to finish writeback.
* @folio: The folio to wait for.
*
* If the folio is currently being written back to storage, wait for the
* I/O to complete.
*
* Context: Sleeps. Must be called in process context and with
* no spinlocks held. Caller should hold a reference on the folio.
* If the folio is not locked, writeback may start again after writeback
* has finished.
*/
void folio_wait_writeback(struct folio *folio)
{
while (folio_test_writeback(folio)) {
trace_folio_wait_writeback(folio, folio_mapping(folio));
folio_wait_bit(folio, PG_writeback);
}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(folio_wait_writeback);
/**
* folio_wait_writeback_killable - Wait for a folio to finish writeback.
* @folio: The folio to wait for.
*
* If the folio is currently being written back to storage, wait for the
* I/O to complete or a fatal signal to arrive.
*
* Context: Sleeps. Must be called in process context and with
* no spinlocks held. Caller should hold a reference on the folio.
* If the folio is not locked, writeback may start again after writeback
* has finished.
* Return: 0 on success, -EINTR if we get a fatal signal while waiting.
*/
int folio_wait_writeback_killable(struct folio *folio)
{
while (folio_test_writeback(folio)) {
trace_folio_wait_writeback(folio, folio_mapping(folio));
if (folio_wait_bit_killable(folio, PG_writeback))
return -EINTR;
}
return 0;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(folio_wait_writeback_killable);
/**
* folio_wait_stable() - wait for writeback to finish, if necessary.
* @folio: The folio to wait on.
*
* This function determines if the given folio is related to a backing
* device that requires folio contents to be held stable during writeback.
* If so, then it will wait for any pending writeback to complete.
*
* Context: Sleeps. Must be called in process context and with
* no spinlocks held. Caller should hold a reference on the folio.
* If the folio is not locked, writeback may start again after writeback
* has finished.
*/
void folio_wait_stable(struct folio *folio)
{
if (folio_inode(folio</